Name of China's national intangible cultural heritage: furniture making skills (jingzuo hardwood furniture making skills)
Applicant: Chongwen District, Beijing
Item No.: 395
Project No.: VIII - 45
Time of publication: 2008 (second batch)
Category: traditional art
Type: Extension Project
Applicant: Chongwen District, Beijing
Protection unit: Beijing Longshuncheng Chinese Style Furniture Co., Ltd
Brief introduction of furniture making technology (jingzuo hardwood furniture making technology)
Applicant: Dongcheng District, Beijing
Ming style furniture is the most famous traditional furniture in China. It not only has brilliant achievements in the history of ancient Chinese furniture, but also occupies an important position in the history of world furniture. Ming style furniture spread to Britain, France and other countries after Kangxi of Qing Dynasty, which had a great influence on the furniture of Europe in the 18th century.
On the basis of inheriting the tradition of furniture making in song and Yuan Dynasties, Ming style furniture has made great innovations in materials, processing technology, modeling design and structure. Some furniture of Qing Dynasty still follow the style and craft of Ming Dynasty furniture, also known as "Ming style furniture". The existing Ming style furniture in China mainly comes from Suzhou, Beijing and Guangzhou. It inherits the excellent tradition of Ming Dynasty furniture and forms three systems: Suzhou style, Beijing style and Guangzhou style. In the production, hardwood with hard texture and meticulous texture, such as red sandalwood, pear, mahogany, ebony, Hercules and chicken wing wood, are used as materials. The texture, material and luster of hardwood are fully used, and the structure is simple, the shape is generous, and there is no complicated decoration. It can be suitable for various uses and the needs of human body. What is most praiseworthy is that Ming style furniture adopts the frame structure of tenon and mortise. All kinds of tenon and mortise are skillfully combined without nails and glue. The furniture is made of precise structure, firm and solid, which is greatly admired by experts in the same trade all over the world. Furniture metal accessories made of white copper, red copper and gilt, such as corners, hinges and feet, are also exquisite in shape and soft in color, which complement the furniture.
There are many kinds of Ming style furniture, including sitting and lying, bearing furniture, bedding, furniture, frame furniture and screen furniture. Chairs, stools, piers, etc. belong to the sitting and lying category; incense table, flower table, table, case, etc. belong to the bearing category; bed, couch, etc. belong to the bedding category; boxes, boxes, cabinets, cabinets, etc. belong to the furniture category; basin rack, mirror rack, clothes rack, etc. belong to the furniture category; seat screen, folding screen, etc. belong to the screen category.
Ming style furniture is the treasure of furniture industry in China and even in the world. It has the research value in the history of furniture development, cultural exchange, social life and folklore. At present, due to the shortage of hardwood raw materials, most of the employees are old, and the young craftsmen are poor in craftsmanship, there are some problems in the production of Ming style furniture. In addition, all kinds of fake mahogany furniture are rampant in the market, which also brings some difficulties to the production of authentic Ming style furniture. At present, it is urgent to cultivate high-level successors to effectively inherit and reasonably develop this valuable traditional handicraft.
Jingzuo hardwood furniture production technology was gradually formed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties palace furniture production. It came into being in Beijing, and has a history of three or four hundred years. Together with "suzuo" (Suzhou) and "guangzuo" (Guangzhou), it is known as the three major schools of Chinese hardwood furniture.
Jingzuo hardwood furniture adapts to the dry climate in northern China. It pays attention to the effect of furnishings, pursues heavy modeling and huge shape, and thus forms a graceful, magnificent and luxurious jingzuo style. Jingzuo hardwood furniture reached its peak in KangQian period of Qing Dynasty, and gradually spread to the folk after Jiadao period. After the founding of new China, due to the active rescue, protection and support policies adopted by the state, jingzuo hardwood furniture manufacturing technology has been restored and developed to a certain extent.
Jingzuo hardwood furniture is a combination of practicality and artistry. It combines precious hardwood materials with scientific and reasonable mortise and tenon structure, solemn and elegant modeling, and beautiful carving. It forms a luxurious and elegant artistic style and realizes the perfect integration of palace art and folk art. It has a high value It is of great value in art and academic research.
With the development of market economy, the production of jingzuo hardwood furniture is in trouble day by day. There is a lack of senior technical personnel and a sharp decrease in the number of employees. If it is not inherited and protected as soon as possible, the traditional production techniques of jingzuo hardwood furniture will be in danger of being lost.
Chinese PinYin : Jia Ju Zhi Zuo Ji Yi Jing Zuo Ying Mu Jia Ju Zhi Zuo Ji Yi
Furniture making skills (jingzuo hardwood furniture making skills)
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