Jino nationality is one of the seven unique nationalities with a small population in Yunnan Province. The national language is Jino language. It belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It has no words. In the past, it used to carve wood and bamboo, count and record events, and generally uses Chinese.
Jino people mainly live in Jinuo Nationality Township of Jinuo mountain, Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province (hereinafter referred to as Xishuangbanna prefecture), mengwang, Mengyang and Menghan nearby, and a small number of Jino people are scattered in Menglun and Xiangming of Mengla County.
In 1979, Jino nationality was officially recognized as a single nationality. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Jino nationality was 23143.
Jinuo Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Jino nationality|
|distribution||Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province|
Chinese PinYin : Ji Nuo Zu
"Jino" is the self proclaimed name of the nation, which can be interpreted as "the descendants of the uncle" or "the nation that respects the uncle".
In the past, it was translated into Chinese as "Youle", so it is also known as "Youle mountain" in Jinuo mountain.
There are two theories about the origin of Jino Nationality: Aboriginal theory and southward migration theory. The word "Jino" comes from the Jino people
When the ancestors lived in jiezhuo mountain, the name "Keno Locke" appeared at that time, "Ji" was uncle, "Nuo" was the one who followed, and the literal translation was "the one who followed Uncle". It is said that the birthplace of Jino nationality is "sjdromi". It is a high mountain at an altitude of nearly 1440 meters on the eastern edge of Jino. It is now called Kongming mountain. So far, the residents of AHA and Axi branches and the Wuyou branch living in Buyuan administrative village, mengwang township have all pointed their birthplace to this high mountain when reviewing the migration route of their ancestors. This shows that the ancestors of Jino nationality lived in Jino mountain and its surrounding areas long ago.
At the beginning of the settlement of Jinuo Nationality in Jinuo mountain, it may still be in the stage of matriarchal social development. It is said that the first living in "jiezhuo" was a widow who gave birth to seven men and seven women. Her brothers and sisters married each other. Later, the population multiplied and divided into two pairs of stockaded villages - two pairs of clan groups that can be intermarried. The first pair of strongholds are CI Tong and man Feng. CI Tong is the "father stronghold" and man Feng is the "mother stronghold". Later, they developed 10 children's strongholds, such as Manya, wozhuang, Huizhen and Shengniu, which is usually called the first half of Jinuo mountain. Another pair of stockaded villages are manpo (father stockaded village) and manpiao (mother stockaded village). Their offspring stockaded nine stockaded villages, such as longpa, Moyang and zaogong, are the latter half of the mountain.
The lineage of the two parents' village is unknown, but the lineage of the children's village can also be obtained. According to the survey in 1958, Manya village is the "eldest son" of CI Tong village. The person who built the village was sister you. After that, it has passed through Youbao, sister Bao, sister Ba Bao, sister waist, waist Ba, Ba SA, sister SA, sister Bai La, Bai La waist, waist Zi, bu le Jie, etc. for 12 generations. If calculated by 25 years, Manya village has a history of more than 300 years. Manka village in the latter half of the mountain was separated relatively late. Since the people who built the village did not wax their waist, it has experienced 8 generations and a history of more than 200 years. Judging from the fact that the father and son of Manya and other villages are linked by names, the patriarchal system has been established when these children's villages were built, that is to say, at least 300 years ago, the Jino nationality has developed from the matrilineal era to the paternal era. After the mid-18th century, the patriarchal family commune based on blood continued to develop. At the end of the 19th century, with the development of productive forces and the emergence of private ownership of some means of production and individual family economy, the patriarchal family commune transitioned to rural commune. However, in this process, they still tenaciously retained the bond of clan blood relationship, and each children's village had to go to their parents' village to hold the annual ancestor worship ceremony. As usual, the "village father" and "village mother" (both male leaders) of the parents' village should visit the children's village once every three years. At that time, the people of the children's village should go far to welcome and send off, and organize a grand ancestral ceremony to welcome and entertain them warmly.
According to local legend, in ancient times, when the flood flooded the earth, only a pair of good and brave brothers and sisters Mahai and Manu survived under the protection and guidance of the immortal. After all kinds of difficulties and twists, they finally married. The immortal once gave them 10 gourd seeds. After planting, only one of the 100 small gourds grew into one, but it grew as big as a house. There were still people talking inside. When I opened it, four kinds of people came out of the gourd, the Jino people came out first, and the Han people, Dai people and Hani people came out in turn (some said that there was a fifth kind, brown people). Later, they found their own paradise. From this legend, we can reflect the close relationship between Jino nationality and Han, Dai, Hani and other nationalities in ancient times.
According to another legend, the Jino people moved from Pu'er, Mojiang and even further north. Once upon migration
After "wujilong" in Kunming and Eshan County, he moved to mengzha and Mengyang in Xishuangbanna, and finally settled in jinuoluo. Jino wizards sent souls to the dead and also sent them to the north. Jino people came to Jino mountain and settled on a ridge called "jiezhuo". Up to now, people still call this place "tebatqian", which means the common place of Jino people. It is said that when the Jino people lived in "jiezhuo", they took leaves and animal skins as their clothes, gathered and hunted for food, and their life was very difficult. The transformation from gathering and hunting economy to mountain agricultural economy is a great progress in the social life of Jino nationality, but their dry rice seeds are not easy to come. According to legend, because Jinuo people couldn't get upland rice seeds, they managed to take hunting dogs deep into the rice producing area and let the hunting dogs roll on the grain pile. As a result, dozens of rice seeds were brought back in the dog's hair. Since then, the rice seeds gradually multiplied, making Jinuo people enter the era of mountain agriculture dominated by upland rice.
The Jino people honor Zhuge Kongming. It is said that the ancestors of Jino nationality were part of Kong Ming's southern expedition. They were "lost" because of sleeping on the way, and then "lost" was attached as "Youle", which is the source of the name "Youle". Although these people later caught up with Kong Ming, they were no longer taken in. For the survival of these laggards, Kong Mingci gave tea seeds, ordered them to grow tea well, and asked them to build a house according to the style of his hat. The circular embroidery pattern on the back of Jino boys' clothes is said to be Kong Ming's eight trigrams. Mr. Kong Ming is also called when offering sacrifices to ghosts and gods. Although the authenticity of the above legends needs to be verified, it reflects the close relationship between the ancient Jino nationality and the Han nationality to a certain extent.
According to the available data, the earliest subordination relationship of Jino nationality can be traced back to 1160. Jinuo mountain was the hereditary territory of Jindian kingdom of Mengxi king when Bazhen unified Mengxi tribes and established Mengxi Jinglong Jindian state. After the Yuan Dynasty set up provinces in Yunnan, Xishuangbanna was included in the ruling scope of the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan government established Cheri road and appointed Dai local officials to rule. In the Ming Dynasty, the military and civilian missionaries in cars were changed, and the chieftain ruled until the Qing Dynasty. Mount Kino is also under its jurisdiction. When ertai was the governor of Yunnan Province in the Qing Dynasty, in order to explore Xishuangbanna, he changed the land to flow in the "six Banna in the river" in the seventh year of Yongzheng (1729). Jinuo mountain was subordinate to Pu'er Prefecture. From the seventh to the thirteenth year of Yongzheng (1729-1735), he built a brick city in Zitong village in Youle mountain, sent about 500 cavalry and infantry to garrison the place, and set up Youle Tongzhi. In the 13th year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1735), the garrison and administrative officials died of a lot of diseases and deaths due to "severe malaria". The Qing government revoked Youle Tongzhi and appointed the Jino leader as the "Youle land head" to directly manage the Jino mountain area as an agent. Later, Jinuo mountain area was under the jurisdiction of the Dai feudal lords for a long time. The Dai feudal lords "zhaopianling" appointed "Ba Ya", "Zha" and "Xian" among the people in Jinuo mountain. During the period of the Republic of China, the national government once put Jinuo mountain under the jurisdiction of Xiaomengyang Township, and then implemented the Baojia system, appointing Baochang and Jiachang among the top leaders of Jinuo Nationality. Therefore, Jinuo mountain area formed a "Trinity" political organization.
In 1941, there were about 8000 people in Jinuo mountain, a total of 28 stockaded villages. Because they could not bear all kinds of military service taxes of the Kuomintang government, the Jinuo People launched an armed uprising under the leadership of cuoyue and others, forcing the authorities to remove their posts and investigate the county magistrate Wang Zi e of Cheli county. In the following three years, the local government of the Republic of China no longer added more military service taxes to the Jinuo People.
Before the founding of new China, the basic social structure of Jinuo Nationality was no longer based on blood relationship, but a geographical unit formed by different clans living together - rural commune. Each village here is an independent village. The boundaries of the villages are carved with knife and gun shaped wood and stone landmarks. The land within the boundaries belongs to the public ownership of the village community and shall not be occupied by others. Each village has more than two matrimonial clans, and two elders deal with the administration, sacrifice and production of the village according to traditional habits, which is like a small world of self-sufficiency. The land of Jinuo mountain is nominally owned by the Supreme Lord "zhaopianling" of Xishuangbanna, but his embodiment of the ownership of this hereditary territory is only to send personnel to collect tribute and apportion factotum every year, which does not affect the Jinuo Nationality's actual possession and use right of mountain land.
There are three forms of land tenure within Jinuo Village: the first is the land tenure system with village as the unit, the second is the land tenure system with clan or surname as the unit, and the third is the private tenure system of individual families. These three forms of land tenure exist in various villages to varying degrees, but as far as most villages are concerned, the dominant is the Land Co ownership system with paternal clan as the unit. Longpa village is the representative of clan co ownership. The land of this village is redistributed in clan units before cutting trees and opening up wasteland every year, and the products are equally distributed according to the labor force at the time of harvest. There are also a few villages in longpa village that share land and private land owned by families. Manya village is the representative of the private land ownership system. This private land is called "Kede kodo", which can be occupied and used for a long time, and even transferred, but it must be returned to the clan when moving out of the village. Manya village also has land shared by some villages. It can be seen that although the land occupation forms of Jino villages are different, either one has not reached the degree of strict private land ownership, and is basically in the stage of shared private occupation by village communities, which is also a basic feature of rural communes. The forms of public farming, partnership farming and private farming are widely implemented in agricultural production, and mutual assistance in changing jobs is also popular. The gains from hunting are also distributed according to the distribution principle of primitive equalitarianism.
In the 1930s and 1940s, the budding relationship of private ownership, tenancy and sales of land began to appear. At that time, there were loans, hired workers and "adopted sons" similar to domestic slaves. There was a division between the rich and the poor among the village members. The rich called "rubbing fruit", the poor called "winding the red", and the middle called "selling Maya". Very few people are exploiters in terms of their economic status, but they have not yet formed a class divorced from production and living by exploiting slaves or farmers. Here, the strength of labor force is closely related to the poor and rich in economic status. For example, some leaders of the same village have more labor force and have surplus food every year, so they have the ability to lend money. While some leaders have less labor force or are sick, they need less clothing and food, and have to borrow from others or rely on relatives and friends for help. Until the founding of new China, the dominant system in most villages was still village community or patriarchal clan co ownership.
The main leaders of the village are "zhuoba" (village father or laohuotou) and "zhuosei" (village mother or laobodhisattva and Dazhai). They are the elders of the two ancient clans in the village and the people with the highest prestige in the village. The only condition for holding this position is that he is the oldest, not brave, good at war, rich in economy and able to speak and debate. Even if he is mediocre, even blind or mute, he is duty bound to hold the post of village elder. After their death, their heirs were also the oldest of the same clan. Some older villages have arranged their successors according to their age. The heirs of "zhuoba" are called "Banu" and the heirs of "zhuosei" are called "shengnu". As assistants of the elders in power, they have to engage in the specific management of the village before the death of "zhuoba" and "zhuosei". The main function of elders is to preside over the production, life and sacrificial activities of the village. For example, before sowing every year, the whole village can only sow seeds after he performs the ritual of killing animals and sacrificing ghosts, and sprinkles several seeds first; The date of the new year is also decided by them. Once the drums and gongs that are unique to the elders' home and revered by the village members ring, the new year will be announced, and the men, women, old and young of the village community will sing and dance together in their hometown.
The elder was associated with the patriarchal clan who began to build the stronghold. Some villagers are ding Buwang. If one of the two elders' clans is extinct, there is no elder to stand for, which often leads to the migration of the whole village. Although elders do not have political privileges, they have a special status. When the Dai chieftain established the political rule of "paya", "Zha" and "Xian" among the Jino people, and the Kuomintang government also established the Baojia system, but they were often combined with the village elders system, which did not and could not replace the elders.
After Mengyang established the district government in 1950, Jinuo mountain was under the jurisdiction of Mengyang. In April 1954, the party and the government sent a national task force to Jinuo mountain area to publicize the party's national policy, strive to unite ethnic and religious elites and celebrities, dredge ethnic relations and develop production. Politically, it has united the broad masses, trained a number of activists in ethnic work, and ensured the smooth progress of democratic government building. According to the social characteristics of the Jino nationality and the working principle of "unity, production and progress", the party and the government adopted the policy of developing its production culture without democratic reform and directly transiting to socialism, which was welcomed and supported by the majority of the Jino people and achieved a historic leap. At the end of 1956, mutual aid groups for changing jobs were generally established. In February 1957, the "Youle mountain production and Culture Station" (jinuoluo production and Culture Station) was established, and the station master and Deputy station master of Jino nationality were elected through consultation. There were 36 villages, 963 families and 5284 people in Jino mountain, and began to enjoy the rights of national equality and ownership. In 1958, the production and Culture Station in Youle mountain area was renamed jinuoluo district government, which is subordinate to Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the Jino people embarked on the road of healthy development. In 1981, jinuoluo commune changed the Revolutionary Committee of Jinuo commune into the Management Committee of Jinuo commune. In 1983, Jinuo commune was abolished and replaced by Jinuo mountain office as the agency of Jinghong county government. At the beginning of 1988, Jino district was changed into Jino mountain Jino nationality township, which is subordinate to Jinghong county. Jino, Hani, Bulang and other ethnic minorities live in the territory.
Jino nationality has an original customary law within the social organization, which is used as the rule of dealing with people, the standard of judging right and wrong and the method of mediating internal contradictions, so as to maintain the normal operation of interpersonal relations in the traditional society.
This customary law has a natural connection with primitive religion and ethics, involving all aspects of social life. Jino people fear ghosts and gods and elders. For example, when sacrificing at the new year's festival, zhuoba and zhuose kill a chicken respectively and announce the traditional village rules and regulations in the name of "the messenger of God".
Jino people have always kept the habit of substituting wine for punishment. Those who violate village rules and regulations or do something wrong will generally be fined 10 bowls of wine. In severe cases, they will be fined two pigs, more than 100 kilograms of rice and dozens of kilograms of wine. Please have a meal with all the people in the village.
In the divorce ceremony, the man gave a pot of wine, the woman's uncle poured a glass of wine, the man and the woman drank a drink, and the rest poured into the ground. The man said, "you are not my family alive, and you are not my ghost when you die." the marriage was officially dissolved.
Customary law and ethics spread and restrict people's behavior in the form of folk proverbs, songs, ancient sayings and so on. As the saying goes, "Bashi doesn't get married, but can be paired after death. He doesn't marry within the family, and he doesn't marry between brothers. Two roosters don't live in one nest, and a girl doesn't love two guys. He doesn't get married without a matchmaker. If he takes his daughter as property, it's difficult for a lover to get married. Where there is no grass, there are no crops, and a vain woman won't be in charge."
Jino people keep the natural concept of equality. They compare the concept of fairness and justice to a balance. When burning land, judge the responsibility of the land burning person by "Shaqi" (notary) to see whether the width and width of the fire stop road meet the regulations. When men and women fall in love, they should ask a woman to be a "sarge". When they get married, she should prove the amount of dowry and gift money. When the family is separated, especially when the villagers in Baka village divorce, the husband and wife each invite a "Shaqi" as the divorce witness to supervise the process of property separation with fair ancient rules.
Jino society maintains a primitive, natural and simple moral fashion. We respect the old, love the young, unite and help each other. They are hardworking, hospitable and trustworthy. Traditional virtues have become a common practice. The Jino nationality has a low level of productivity and often lacks clothing and food, but their food is stored in small grass sheds on the ground or outside the house, "not closed at night and not found on the road". The Jino nationality still retains the habit of primitive equalitarianism. Even a small muntjac should be shared by the per capita population of the village. The custom of "eating raw and cooked" has been retained among the people, that is, after capturing the prey, anyone who sees the catcher can get a share when he is alive and eat when he is cooked until he is finished. Drinking and hospitality are also very sincere. As long as the guests don't put their glasses, the host must accompany them to the end.
Jino nationality was in a very backward primitive state for a long time. Until the founding of new China, mountain agriculture with "slash and burn" as the main means and characteristics was the main form of economic production. It mainly depends on deforestation and intermittent farming. During reclamation, cut trees and grass, dry them, set them on fire, use plant ash as fertilizer, and sow them after leveling. Plant one season a year without seed selection and fertilization. When sowing seeds, the man digs a hole in front with a chopping shovel or hand hoe, and the woman then points seeds and covers the soil. Only a small amount of drilling and sowing can be carried out on gentle slopes. They use the method of crop rotation. In the open mountains, they usually plant for one or two years, and only three years for the more fertile ones. Cotton was planted in the first year, upland rice was planted in the second year, and grain was planted in the third year. After planting, the wasteland was abandoned and new land was opened. Machetes, shovels, samarium knives, machetes, sickles, fire sickles and small HOEs are the main production tools of Jino nationality.
Jinuo mountain is one of the six tea mountains of Pu'er tea. It is said that during the Three Kingdoms period, the Jino people began to grow tea and could carry out preliminary tea processing. Pu'er tea flourished in the junior middle school of the Qing Dynasty. The maximum annual output of the six tea mountains in Xishuangbanna reached 80000 tons, including more than 5000 tons of tea produced by Cheli, youleshan and damonglong. In 1729, the Qing government established "Youle Tongzhi" and sent officials to collect tea taxes. At that time, many tea merchants and caravans came to buy tea. Longpa village in Jinuo mountain was once a tea farm established by the Qing government and a tea making center at that time. Tea production was once prosperous.
In 1981, the Jino nationality achieved basic self-sufficiency in food. In 1984, the household contract responsibility system was implemented, which greatly mobilized the enthusiasm of the masses. In recent years, with the implementation of the strategy of western development, the Jino people have actively adjusted the agricultural structure and rural industrial structure according to local conditions, adopted advanced and applicable technologies to transform grain planting, and made the original extensive and backward dry land farming method move forward to the scientific goal of grain planting. The yield per mu of upland rice increased from 100 kg in 1980 to 133 kg in 1998. The paddy field area of the whole township was stable at about 6000 mu. With the reduction of cultivated land, the per capita grain increased from 478 kg in 1979 to 628 kg in 1998. In 2003, the township had 30715 mu of cultivated land, including 6655 mu of paddy field. The sown area of grain is 30669 mu, the total output is 5345.6000 kg, and the per capita grain of farmers is 525 kg.
Relying on the support of scientific research departments, Jino people widely planted cash crops, which not only promoted the economic development of mountainous areas, but also improved the ecological environment, so that the ecological and economic benefits entered the track of a virtuous circle. Tea, Amomum villosum and rubber have become the three pillar industries of Jinuo township. While comprehensively developing the economy of mountainous areas, the state has also implemented the "natural conservation project" and returning farmland to forests. Jinuo township has 86215 mu of nature reserves and 447758 mu of state-owned forests, accounting for 57.8% of the total area of the township.
By the early 1980s, the breeding industry of Jino nationality was still in the primitive grazing stage. Large livestock include cattle and buffalo, but they are not used for cultivated land, but for sacrifice and meat eating. They also generally raise livestock and poultry such as pigs, dogs, chickens and so on. Except for dogs, livestock graze on the hillside grassland around the village by themselves, and there is no special person to take care of them, allowing them to live and forage freely.
The Jino people are good at hunting. Hunting is a basic skill of Keno men. The number of animals hunted and whether they have rich hunting knowledge and experience have become the main indicators to measure men's ability. When men go out or work, they often carry crossbows, bows, slingshots or carrying shotguns to shoot birds and animals at any time. They can also set traps, buttons, fences, jump tags, pressure wood, etc. to catch wild animals. On the way back from hunting, the hunting man sounded a percussion instrument made of bamboo, with a sonorous and powerful sound. The hunting hero also sang a beautiful Hunting Song. Collective hunting is popular. Participants distribute their catches equally, and only those who hit have more animal skins.
Fishing is also an important sideline for Jino residents. Xiaoheijiang River, mengwang River, Butian River, etc. have vertical and horizontal gullies and are very rich in fish resources. When people are free, they go fishing. In the slack season, they also fish collectively, which is used as a side dish or made into a "dry bus". After barbecue, it becomes a delicacy for guests and food.
Gathering is an important productive activity for Jino women. The daily meals and non-staple food of Jino nationality mainly depend on various wild vegetables, wild fruits and insects collected by women. There are many kinds of rare game in Jinuo mountain, such as various fungi, bamboo shoots, Auricularia auricula, Baisheng, etc. there are ten or twenty kinds of wild fruits, twenty or thirty kinds of wild vegetables and more than 20 kinds of insects. Keno women are used to carrying a large cotton handkerchief during production and labor, so as to collect all kinds of wild vegetables and fruits at any time. Some are ready to eat, while others need to be processed before eating. In addition to farming, keno women gathered everywhere and went home after work. The whole family had soup and vegetables to eat.
After the founding of new China, with the support and help of the party and the government, the Jino nationality vigorously developed the breeding industry. The number of large livestock increased from 627 in 1954 to 1263 in 2003, and the number of pigs increased from 1960 in 1954 to 11052 in 2003. Jino people never raised fish in the past. By 2003, they raised 125 mu of fish and produced 10700 kg.
The traditional handicraft industry of Jino nationality is small in scale and has not yet formed commodity production. It is basically a supplement to the self-sufficient economy, and has not been completely separated from agriculture.
Weaving and embroidery are a basic skill of Keno women. In Jinuo mountain, women can be seen at any time, either twisting with spinning wheels or embroidery with needles and wires. The skill of spinning can only be mastered after long-term training. Weaving is a job for adult women, especially married women. They use an original waist loom to weave cloth. One end of the warp is tied to their waist and the other end is tied to the opposite wooden column. They sit on the ground, pull the weft back and forth with a shuttle in both hands, and then tighten it with a machete like board to weave a thick and durable "machete cloth". After the autumn harvest every year, women are busy removing cotton seeds, popping, spinning and dyeing. Embroidery is mainly used for clothing. Jino women have to learn the skills of embroidery and sewing since childhood. When they grow up, they have to personally embroider handkerchiefs, satchels, flower belts and other keepsakes to give to their lovers. After being engaged, the girls have to spin and embroider a batch of clothes and quilts as dowry.
The traditional handicraft of Jino men is made of bamboo strips. The bamboo forests all over Jinuo mountain provide them with necessary daily necessities. They live in bamboo houses and eat bamboo shoots; Tables, chairs, boards, stools, beds and boxes are made of bamboo, while steamers, bowls, ladles, basins and chopsticks are made of bamboo; Bamboo boards and pieces are used to carve wood and record events. Blowing, pulling and playing are inseparable from bamboo; Chopping shovels for farming, bows and jumping sticks for hunting... From cigarette boxes to back baskets, all of them are the performance of Keno men's skills. They use the methods of two lifting and two pressing, three lifting and three pressing and double lifting and double pressing to compile various production and daily necessities, with beautiful and generous appearance.
The folk handicrafts of Jino nationality also include carving, that is, carving shrines, coffins, earrings, drums, pipes, rice steamers, bowls, spoons and other living utensils with wood, bamboo and ox horns. They are good at clay sculpture, mainly making sacrificial people, horses, pigs, cattle, sheep, snakes, crabs, chickens, etc.
Almost every Jinuo mountain stronghold has blacksmiths, who can produce axes, sickles, hoes, plows and other production tools, as well as knives, shovels, pots and other living utensils. It is said that blacksmiths learned their skills from the Han nationality. They do not have the ability to smelt iron. Most of the raw materials used for forging iron are exchanged with caravans or foreign businessmen.
In addition to having a certain ancestor worship and respect for Zhuge Kongming, the Jinuo Nationality's most distinctive and dominant religious view is the thought that all things have souls.
Jino people believe that there are mountain gods in the mountain, earth gods in the earth, village gods in the village and valley gods in the valley. There are many sacrificial activities every year, such as traditional festivals, festive harvests, childbearing, natural and man-made disasters.
The biggest sacrificial activity in a year is the sun drum during the "temoke" festival. The sun drum is keno
The most sacred sacrificial utensils and musical instruments of the clan generally have two sides, including male drum and female drum. They regard the sun drum as the embodiment of gods and the symbol of the village. The purpose of sacrificing the sun drum is to pray that it can bless the prosperity of the whole village and the bumper harvest of grain. Sacrificial activities also include "namolo" sacrificing the creator God amoyaobo and sacrificing ancestors on the "haoxizao" festival. There are more than ten kinds, such as Gu soul, "sacrificing Da Long" and "sacrificing Xiao Long".
Sacrificial activities have specific rules, generally killing pigs and dogs. The hunting sacrifice should be divided into three levels according to the size and ferocity of the prey. The scale of the sacrifice also varies according to the level. All prey must be eaten after the sacrifice. The large religious activities were hosted by "zhuoba" and "zhuosei", attended by the whole village, and chanted by the live wizards "Bai La Pao" and "Mo Pei".
Jino wizards have a unique set of divination, and witch doctors can cure diseases with herbs. Wizards are not only people who are familiar with customary laws and historical stories, but also famous singers. At the same time, they are also oral successors of long epics. In fact, they are inheritors of national culture.
Keno men usually wear black-and-white Plaid linen and cloth coats without collar and button, with a square red cloth sewn in the middle of the back of the coat, embroidered with a beautiful sunflower (it is said to be Kong Ming's gossip pattern), white or blue wide trousers or shorts and a wide cloth belt. Before the founding of new China, most men had three tufts of hair on their heads: to commemorate Wuhou in China and Israel and to conceive their parents around. Some say that the left is for their parents and the right is for themselves.
The woman's upper body is wearing a collar less, embroidered pair skirt and a short skirt with red edge and black front opening and closing. Now some people also wear long skirts. Keno women are used to wrapping leggings and high bun hair. They also wear white thick linen on their heads and Cape pointed hats with long wings and shoulders, which are solemn, square, lively and beautiful. In the past, both men and women were barefoot and liked to chew betel nut or dye their teeth with rosewood black juice. Both men and women have perforations in their ears, stuffed with bamboo tubes and wooden plugs. The big ear holes are beautiful.
Jino people are used to three meals of solar eclipse, taking rice as their daily staple food, mixed with corn, melons and beans. Jino people are very particular about eating rice. They should eat good rice and new rice. Chencang rice is mostly used to feed livestock or make roast wine. Like to eat green corn. For breakfast, glutinous rice is usually squeezed into a ball by hand. For lunch, rice is wrapped in banana leaves and taken to the ground to add salt and pepper at any time. Some people also take rice directly up the mountain, cut bamboo tubes on the spot, collect wild vegetables, and roast rice and vegetables in bamboo tubes. In addition to the staple food rice, there are also some dishes for dinner, including melons and beans and mountain vegetables and game collected and hunted at any time. Domestic livestock and poultry can only be slaughtered at weddings and funerals. Usually, meat comes from hunting.
Jino people like sour, spicy and salty tastes, especially sour. Sour bamboo shoots are the main domestic dish. Mash the Grignard fruit and add pepper and salt to become the necessary seasoning for each meal. The cooking methods of Jino nationality are mainly roasting, boiling and frying. Roast rice in bamboo tube, boiled dog meat with sour bamboo shoots, boiled beef with bitter thorn fruit, burned flying ants, roasted spiders, boiled porridge with bamboo rats, roasted meat with banana leaves and gold bar meat are the most distinctive delicacies of Jino nationality. Jino people generally like drinking, and there is a saying among the people that you can't have no wine for a day. Most of the wine we drink is brewed from rice or corn. In the brewing process, some lock plum leaves and other plants are usually added. The wine is light green and has a natural flavor of plants. It has the effect of strengthening the spleen and body. Jino people like to drink old leaf tea. When drinking tea, they usually knead and fry the old leaves, put them into a tea pot, add water and cook until the soup is thick.
There is also a habit of eating local unique clay among some Jino women in maoo, Jiama and other villages. Some old women have become addicted to eating soil, and they will feel uncomfortable if they don't eat for a day. The research shows that the clay contains a small amount of copper, iron, calcium, zinc and other elements necessary for human body.
Jinuo village is built on a gentle sunny hillside. The house is a "dry fence" bamboo building built of bamboo, wood and thatch. It looks like a Kongming hat. It is said that the building style is Kongming religion. The bamboo building is supported by a wooden frame, with rough wood as beams and columns, tenon as a frame, and no metal connection. The floor and four walls are arranged and paved with bamboo pieces, and the thatch is woven into grass rows to cover the roof. People live on the upper floor of the bamboo building, and there are no four walls on the lower floor, which is used to stack tools, objects and livestock. There are two front and rear sun drying platforms on the bamboo building. The front sun drying platform is connected to the stairway, and the rear sun drying platform is the place for clothes drying and textile. The upstairs is separated by a bamboo fence. The inner house is divided into several bedrooms according to the population. The outer house is the "living room", which is also the kitchen and dining hall. There is a fire pond in the middle of the "living room". Three pot piles and stones are in the shape of three pillars. Bamboo hanging cages are hung on the fire pond to place food. Fire pond and pot pile stone are sacred things in the home. Drinking tea, talking, negotiating housework and arranging production are all carried out here. The two ends of the ridge of the bamboo building are decorated with thatched earrings. The bamboo buildings of the general people are decorated with 6 flowers, and the village "elders" are decorated with 10 flowers. The bamboo building decorated with earring flowers makes people recognize the social status and identity of its owner at a glance.
The traditional Jino houses are slightly different from those now. There are roughly two kinds: one is the bamboo building with a fire pond, in which there are 56 to more than 10 members of a paternal family. It is said that before the Kuomintang troops entered the mountains to suppress the Jino people's uprising in the 1940s, there were large patriarchal families with 50 or 60 people in many villages and communities. Several generations worked collectively and ate big pots under the leadership of a male parent. The other is the rectangular bamboo building of longpa village, which is about 30-40 meters long and 8-10 meters wide. Several generations of the same paternal clan live in the building. There is a passage into the building. On the earth platform with stone edges, there are fire ponds of small families side by side at equal distance. On both sides of the fire pond are their bedrooms, and the first one on the right side of the door is the parents' bedroom. Although there is also a male parent, each small family has its own family economy and consumes independently according to the small family. In 1940, 31 households of the same paternal clan, with a total of 125 people, lived in a Dazhu building in longpa village. Every bamboo house has a male parent - "zhuoba". If the man of this family dies without "zhuoba", the house will be demolished, and the woman must remarry or return to her mother's house without the right to inherit the door. This custom of living together and cooking separately vividly reflects the transition from paternal extended family to small family village community.
Jinuo People are rich in myths, legends, stories, poems, riddles and proverbs.
In myths and legends, Mahai and Maliu and amo YAOBO are widely spread.
Folk stories include two young men reflecting pure love, Baodao and bamboo flute, monkey and man, eldest sister and four younger sisters reflecting good and evil, organic wisdom story avi, Bai Lajie and Bai lache, bride selection and orphan Yaojie praising women's hard work, loyalty and kindness, diligence and courage Shache and snake Lang, egg girl, allegorical stories Yubo shell and wild cat, frog and monkey, frog case, etc.
Jino poetry is divided into narrative poetry and lyric poetry. It has a wide range of content, implicit and true style and rich flavor of life. The most famous narrative poem is ba poetry and Mi poetry, which describes the beautiful and sad love story between men and women of Jino nationality.
Jinuo riddles mainly reflect natural phenomena. In terms of daily necessities and production tools, they have both poetic charm and artistic charm; Proverbs are simple, popular and profound.
The Jino people have an unsystematic lunar calendar, which records the moon with the circle of the moon. A year is divided into 12 months. The folk song has the lyrics of "11 months a year, 30 days in January". The actual redundant month is the "New Year Month" of Jino nationality, and its days are not fixed. There is no month name for the other 11 months.
The Jiri and chronology of the Jino people are established according to the order of the creation of the creation God amoyo Bo, and every 12 days is a cycle. The first day is called "Yi rub", which means water day; The next day is called "Nemo", that is, "amo yebo day", which means "(creation) Sunday"; The third day is called "Zao", which means "sun day"; The fourth day is called "Buluo", which means "moon day"; The fifth day is called "Ni", which means "star day"; The sixth day is called "risk", which means that heaven and earth close together, which means "close the day"; The seventh day is called "West", which can be translated as "grass day"; The eighth day is called "Sahe", which means "windy day"; The ninth day is called "color forehead", which means "tree day"; The tenth day is called "bukho", which means "rainy day"; The eleventh day is called "Xiduo", which means the birthday of seven suns, which can also be translated as "seven days"; The twelfth day is called "rice ruminant", which means "fire day". The Jino people's chronology takes 12 years as a round. Some Jino people call it in the order of chronological days. Because the year that starts again and again is included, it is often said that 13 years is a round.
The Jino people begin the year with the "temoke" festival in early spring. When birch bark and hemp sprout, bean dregs bloom, moss grows on the small heijiang River and the Lancang River shines (about equivalent to January of the Gregorian calendar), the "temoke" Festival is coming. All villages begin to have a grand "temoke" festival, and begin to arrange to cut forest land, repair branches and level land; When the cicada calls (about the same as February of the Gregorian calendar), the ceremony of burning the land can be held, cutting the fire path, burning the land, picking hawthorn, ridge, building land and cutting; When the cicada's cry reached its climax (about equivalent to march of the Gregorian calendar), it began to plant cotton and corn and build shacks on the ground; When the "Jingbo" flowers in full bloom (about equivalent to April and may of the Gregorian calendar), a sowing ceremony can be held to plant dry valleys, melons and beans, weed and tie fences; When the ground is full of weeds (about equivalent to June and July of the Gregorian calendar), the old village will hold a grand "namolo" sacrifice and prepare for the "good morning (eat new rice)" ceremony. People weeding, planting seedlings and fixing fences; "Aguyou" began to sing, and the early rice matured (about equivalent to August of the Gregorian calendar). Ersun village held a "namolo" ceremony to sacrifice its ancestors, "eat new rice", harvest early rice and protect the land for autumn; When the middle rice is mature (about equivalent to September of the Gregorian calendar), the harvest of middle rice begins. People who do not plant late rice hold a ceremony of "calling Gu soul"; When late rice is mature (about equivalent to October of the Gregorian calendar), harvest late rice, cotton and soybeans, and pile grains; When threshing millet (equivalent to November of the Gregorian calendar), carry the millet home, hold a "call the soul of the valley" ceremony, and prepare to build a new house; In the new year's month, select the mountain forest land, start the "No. land", send people to choose cattle to buy cattle, and prepare the items for the "temoke" festival.
During the Republic of China, the national government once ran a school in bayazhai with two teachers, but it was unable to run the school because there were only two students.
Xishuangbanna started to set up schools after its establishment in 1953. In 1956, three primary schools were established in bayazhai, bakazhai and Balai. 170 children entered the school and became the first generation of Jino students. In 1957, jinuoluo Central Primary School was established in bayazhai. In 1960, there were 9 Jinuo mountain primary schools with more than 800 students. In 1962, there were 19 Graduates of the first high school and primary school in Jinuo mountain. In 1981, Jinuo mountain opened an all boarding Ethnic Primary School, and children in remote villages had the opportunity to enter school. A junior middle school was established in 1983. In 1996, Jinuo Township passed the acceptance of universal nine-year compulsory education, and the literacy work of the whole people was basically completed in 1998.
By 2003, there were 43 primary schools and 1 junior middle school in Jinuo mountain. The enrollment rate of school-age children reached 99.9% and the graduation rate was 97.02%. Jinuo Township became the earliest ethnic township to popularize compulsory education in Xishuangbanna.
In 1957, a health center was established in Jinuo mountain, and the state people's government sent three medical personnel. They toured medical treatment in Jinuo mountain, trained health workers and birth attendants for villages, and actively developed and trained folk grass doctors of Jinuo Nationality.
By 1965, Jino mountain had basically established a medical and health network, and had its own doctors and primary health personnel. In the 1970s, cooperative medical and health undertakings were established. Each village has set up cooperative medical rooms and barefoot doctors who can simply practice medicine and ask for medicine.
In the mid-1980s, a steel-concrete outpatient building was built in jinuoshan health center, which is equipped with Chinese and Western medicine clinic, gynecology, surgical operation room and 30 beds. The number of medical staff increased from 2 at the time of establishment to 19. Among the doctors in the health center, Jino doctors accounted for 70%. Relying on modern medical means and medical technology, they took off the hat of "hometown of malaria" in one fell swoop.
Since their youth, Jino people like to learn to sing, and can improvise, use object metaphor and improvise lyrics according to the tune. The song is melodious and beautiful. Whenever festivals are held, the elderly sing and the young dance.
Folk songs include narrative songs, marriage songs, festival songs, hunting songs, welcome songs, love songs, children's songs, religious folk songs, etc. People often impart knowledge by singing folk songs. For example, there are hunting songs, hunting tunes, sowing songs, collecting songs, season songs, etc. about production knowledge, love songs, wedding songs, etc. about life knowledge, etiquette and customs songs about social norms, as well as folk songs for criticizing satire, safeguarding morality and ethics and expressing social public opinion.
People not only sing folk songs when they are happy, but also sing folk songs when there are contradictions and disputes. They express their dissatisfaction and resolve contradictions with gentle language and appropriate wording. Therefore, we often avoid quarrels and turn fights into friendship.
The main folk musical instruments of Jino nationality include: "saitu" (big drum), bamboo percussion instruments "Qike" and "Bugu", bamboo wind instruments "bitulu", "Beto", "yozha", "biebie", "biebie rub lielie" and "shibie", as well as harmonica, erhu, manggong and cymbals.
Jino folk dance is divided into custom dance and entertainment dance.
Traditional dances, such as big drum dance, new house dance, funeral dance, ancestor worship dance, etc. Da drum dance is the most distinctive dance of Jino nationality. It has also been listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list and the first batch of intangible cultural heritage list of Yunnan Province. The big drum is also known as the sun drum, that is, "saitu", which generally refers to the larger gods. The Jino people focus their worship of gods, ancestors and reproduction on the worship of big drums. Traditionally, there are only two dances a year, one is "temoke" festival, and the other is "nibala" sacrificial activities.
Entertainment dances mainly include "Zuo Jiao Mai" (children's dance), "Zhu Gu Neng" (girl dance), "tiaosheng" and so on.
The traditional festival of Jino nationality is "temoke" (a work called "temoche"). "Temoke" is the Chinese new year, which means "making big iron". It is a festival held by the Jino people to commemorate the creation and use of iron tools. In the past, festival activities were held in villages. There was no unified time. About the twelfth lunar month, it was generally decided by "zhuoba". Once "zhuoba" sounded the big drum, it meant the beginning of the festival. In 1988, according to the wishes of the Jino people, the Standing Committee of Xishuangbanna state people's Congress designated February 6 to 8 of the Gregorian calendar as the "temoke" festival of the Jino people. During the festival, most villages will chip in to buy cattle and organize grand cattle plagiarism activities. At that time, under the command of zhuoba, a group of men holding javelin threw javelin at the chained cattle in turn. After the cattle were stabbed to death, several young men cut off the cattle's feet with a knife, and then cut off a piece of meat from the cattle's buttocks for sacrifice, and the rest were shared; We also use lean beef, skin, blood, gall, garlic, chili, sour bamboo shoots, betel nuts, green leaves and wine to make a cold dish called "kelesha". Together with three birds and flying mice, it will be given to the elders of the nearby village as a gift and praise. After plagiarizing the cow, the parents of all families should go to zhuoba's house to hold a drum sacrifice ceremony. The elders should give a banquet and dance "great encouragement". The villagers also send some bamboo rats to the blacksmith for iron making sacrifice.
The traditional festival of Jino nationality also has "haoxizao", that is, the new rice Festival, also known as "new rice". Every year in July and August of the lunar calendar, when the grain is about to mature, the Jino people collect new millet, vegetables and melons and beans from the fields, kill chickens, invite relatives and friends to taste new rice, old wine, fresh meat and green vegetables at home, and hold various sacrificial ceremonies at the same time. People eat and sing, and happy songs often stay up all night.
Adult ceremony is a major event in Jino people's life.
Each young man is 15 or 16 years old, and the young woman is 13 or 14 years old. After a complex and serious ceremony, she can change into adult clothes, carry a handkerchief, and participate in the "Rao Kao" (male) and "Mi Kao" (female) organizations. From then on, she has the qualification of a normal member of the village community. When the adult ceremony is held, parents should give their children a full set of production tools and adult clothes, and girls should comb adult hair styles.
At the ceremony, the village elders should lead everyone to sing an epic, tell about the hardships of labor and life, and teach traditional ethics.
The marriage of Jino nationality is monogamy with dual marriage color and the remnants of group marriage.
Generally, marriage takes place in different clans in the village. With the development of society, from the beginning of the 20th century, the marriage relationship began to transition to non clan marriage in villages outside the clan with the establishment and expansion of the geographical relationship between villages and communities. Before marriage, the social and sexual relations between men and women outside the clan are free. Illegitimate children live with their mother in their husband's house without discrimination in society, but some are adopted by their uncles.
Young men and women should go through the "adult ceremony" and participate in the "Rao test" and "rice test" organizations before they have the right to make friends with the opposite sex and talk about love. Some villages have also built public houses for trysts of young men and women. Men and women usually fall in love through three stages: Ba Piao (secret dating stage), "Ba Bao" (from secret to public stage), and "Barry" (cohabitation stage).
After cohabitation, the two sides feel harmonious. If one day, the man takes the initiative to sweep the floor, carry water, burn a fire and cook for the girl in the morning, it means that he wants to marry the girl. The man's father or uncle proposed to the woman's parents and held the wedding on a selected date. After marriage, women must strictly observe chastity and rarely divorce.
The funeral custom of Jino nationality is: after a person dies, dig a single wood as a coffin and bury it in a public cemetery without leaving a grave. The production and daily necessities loved by the dead were used as funeral objects, and the rich also buried a copper pot of silver. The tomb table is covered with a small grass room and a built-in bamboo table. The family members provide meals three times a day for one to three consecutive years. Some still guard the tomb for several months to show their remembrance of the dead. The soul of the dead finally returns to the holy land where the ancestors and Heroes are located - "Si jiezhuomi".
A few years later, in order to bury the dead, not only the original thatched cottage can be demolished, but also the coffin bones that have been buried can be dug up and scattered in the mountains. This is because the area of public cemeteries in each village is limited, and the cemeteries of each paternal clan are more narrow and cannot be expanded arbitrarily. It is said that expanding the place where ghosts live will be unlucky for the living. The deceased or minors shall not be buried in the village community cemetery, and the members who move in later cannot be buried in the public cemetery. They can only be buried at the edge of the public cemetery. Cremation shall be carried out in case of the death of pregnant women and mental patients.
One year after his father's death, the children will build a new house, which means to give their house to their father. When the new house is completed, a grand sacrificial activity called "going to the new house" will be held.
Tibetans are one of China's 56 ethnic groups and the indigenous people of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It is mainly distributed in Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Western Sichuan Province, Diqing in Yunnan, Gannan in Gansu and other regions in Ch. Cang Zu
Yi is the sixth largest ethnic minority in China. Its national language is Yi. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. There are 6 dialects in the north, East, South, Southeast, West and cent. Yi Zu
Bai nationality is the 15th largest ethnic minority in China, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other provinces. Among them, the Bai nationality in Yunnan Province has the largest population, mainly living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture,. Bai Zu
Dai nationality (Roman letter: Dai), also known as Thai nationality (Thai: Pang Pang, Roman letter: Thai), Shan nationality (Roman letter: Shan), etc. the national language is Dai (Thai), belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of Zhuang Dong nationality of Si. Dai Zu
Gaoshan Nationality mainly lives in Taiwan Province of China, and a few scattered in coastal areas such as Fujian and Zhejiang Province. Gaoshan ethnic groups mainly live in the mountainous areas in Central Taiwan, the longitudinal valley plain in the Eas. Gao Shan Zu
The Lahu nationality is one of the oldest nationalities in China. Its national language is Lahu. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It worships many gods and worships "Esha".. La Hu Zu
Jingpo, one of China's ethnic minorities, has its own language and characters. The language belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. The five branches belong to the Jingpo language branch and the Burmese Language. Jing Po Zu
The Tu nationality is one of the ethnic groups with relatively small population in China. The Tu language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. In 1979, the state created the Tu language based on Latin letters and in the form . Tu Zu
Daur nationality is one of 56 nationalities in China, mainly distributed in Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, meiris Daur autonomous region of Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province and Ewenki Autonomous Banner; A few live . Da Wo Er Zu
Qiang nationality originates from ancient Qiang and is an ancient nationality in Western China. Ancient Qiang has a broad and far-reaching impact on China's historical development and the formation of the Chinese nation. The national language is Qiang lan. Qiang Zu
Nu is one of the ethnic groups with a small population and a large number of languages in China. Lushui (formerly Bijiang county) of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County, Weix. Nu Zu
Hezhe nationality is a minority nationality with a long history in Northeast China. Its national language is Hezhe language, which belongs to the Manchu branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of Altai language family (there is also a view that it s. He Zhe Zu