Hezhe nationality is a minority nationality with a long history in Northeast China. Its national language is Hezhe language, which belongs to the Manchu branch of the Manchu Tungusic language family of Altai language family (there is also a view that it should be included in the Nanai language branch). It has no national characters and uses Cyrillic letters to record the language. Because it has been living together with the Han nationality for a long time, it uses Chinese.
Due to the vast living area, Hezhen people claim more, such as "Nabei", "Nani", "nani'ao". As a family name, "Hezhen" first appeared in March of the second year of Kangxi (1663). After the publication of Ling Chunsheng's book Hezhen in the lower reaches of the Songhua River in 1934, "Hezhen" began to spread widely as a family name.
Hezhe nationality is mainly distributed in the Sanjiang Plain formed by the intersection of Heilongjiang, Songhua River and Wusuli River and the remaining vein of Wanda mountain. It mainly lives in three townships and two villages, namely, Jiejinkou Hezhe Township, Tongjiang City, bacha Hezhe Township, Sipai Hezhe Township, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Aoqi Hezhe village, Aoqi Town, Jiamusi City and Zhuaji Hezhe village, Zhuaji Town, Fuyuan County. According to the sixth national census in 2010, the population of Hezhen nationality is 5354.
Hezhe Nationality Wiki:
Chinese PinYin : He Zhe Zu
Due to the vast living area, Hezhen people claim more.
In the past, people living along the Songhua River above Datun in Fujin city called themselves "Nabei"; People living in Jinkou village, galdang street, Fujin city call themselves "Na Nai"; People who live below Jinkou village, Jiejiang city and along the Wusuli River call themselves "Nani Ao". "Na" in these three titles means "local" and "local", and "Nai", "Bei" and "NiO" mean human.
In addition, the people who originally lived in the areas below xiabacha and along the Wusuli River are called "Hezhen" or "hejisler", which means "downstream people" or "Oriental people"; People who originally lived along the banks of the mixed Tongjiang and Songhua rivers above Qindeli also called themselves "Qiling".
"He zhe" is a variant of "he Zhen". It is a homonym of "Heijin", "Heijin", "Heijin", "heizhe", "He Jin", "He Jin" and other names. "He zhe", as a family name, first appeared in March of the second year of Kangxi (1663). After the publication of Ling Chunsheng's book Hezhe Nationality in the lower reaches of the Songhua River in 1934, "Hezhe" spread widely as a family name.
The ancestors of Hezhen people are an integral part of the family of Sushen. Historically, they were included in the ancient nationalities such as Sushen, yilou, Buji and so on.
During the Tang Dynasty and the Bohai State period, the ancestors of Hezhe nationality had a close origin relationship with heishuikan, which was one of its components. In the 10th year of Kaiyuan of the Tang Dynasty (722), Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty appointed the leader of heishuikan as the governor of bolizhou. In the 12th year of Kaiyuan of the Tang Dynasty (724), the Tang Dynasty set up the Heishui army in the land of Heishui Pei. In the 14th year of Kaiyuan of the Tang Dynasty (726), the Heishui governor was set up in Heishui Pei. The local leaders were the governor and assassin. The Tang sent a long history supervisor to jointly manage the land, and the Hezhen ancestors belonged to it.
The Liao Dynasty was a part of the northern branch of shengnvzhen. In the sixth year of the reign of emperor Chongxi of Liao Dynasty (1037), there were five ministry ministers, and the ancestors of Hezhen nationality belonged to them.
The Jin Dynasty is a part of the immortal female. In the first year of Jin Shouguo (1115), Huli road change was set in the lower reaches of the Songhua River, and the ancestors of Hezhen nationality belonged to it.
The Yuan Dynasty was a part of Nuzhen Shuida people. In the Yuan Dynasty, it belonged to nvzhishui dada wanhu house and nvzhishui dada road.
In the seventh year of Yongle of the Ming Dynasty (1409), there was a command department of nuergan capital, and the ancestors of Hezhen nationality belonged to it. It was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong Dusi during the Hongzhi period of the Ming Dynasty. There are three systems of female reality in the Ming Dynasty, namely Haixi Nvzhen, Jianzhou Nvzhen and savage Nvzhen. He zhe Ren is an important part of savage Nvzhen. At this time, the situation of Hezhen ancestors became clear, and various documents described it in more detail. By the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Hezhen ancestors were gradually separated from female immortals, which laid a foundation for the formation of Hezhen community and national identity. At the end of the Ming Dynasty, Jurchen nationality rose again, and its driving force came from Jianzhou Jurchen. In the early Ming Dynasty, the main bodies of Jurchen in Jianzhou went south from the lower reaches of Songhua River through Huli reform department, uoduoli department and Maolian part. After separation and aggregation, they finally gathered between Suzi River, the source of Hun River, and Pozhu River (today's Hun River) in the early Ming Dynasty. At the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, Nurhachi gradually unified the Nuzhen ministries. In 1616, Nurhachi was called Khan in Hetu ala (now Xinbin, Liaoning), with the country name of Jin and the history of later Jin. Haixi Nuzhen originally lived in the lower reaches of the Songhua River. In the early Ming Dynasty, it gradually moved south. From the upper reaches of the Liaohe River to the upper reaches of the Songhua River in the 1930s to 1970s, forming four parts: hada, Wula, Yehe and Huifa.
Due to the gradual southward migration of the above two Nuzhen tribes, especially after the establishment of the Qing regime, the political center and main activity area of the Manchu nationality moved to Guannei, leaving room for the savage Nuzhen to form a separate ethnic body. Therefore, the Ming Dynasty was the gestation period for the formation of Hezhe nationality. After about 200 years of differentiation and integration, the Hezhe Nationality entered the formation period in the early Qing Dynasty. The Manchu and Hezhen nationalities were mainly from heishuikan. Later, due to different development and distribution regions, they were divided into three groups: Jianzhou, Haixi Nvzhen and savage Nvzhen in the Ming Dynasty. Jianzhou and Haixi Nvzhen later became the main body of the Manchu nationality, while part of the "savage Nvzhen" became the Hezhen nationality. At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the "savage Nvzhen" was divided into two parts: huerha and erwaka, and the Hezhen nationality was divided into two parts: "those living on both sides of the Songhua River and Heilongjiang River are called shaving black gold"; "Those who live around the confluence of Wusuli, Songhua and Heilong rivers say they don't shave their hair and black gold... The so-called dog country". Shaving black catties and non shaving black catties originally belong to the same "edenkara". The Hezhen people in China and the nay people in Russia are mainly descendants of shaving black Jin. The people wrongly classified as ulqi by Russian scholars are mainly descendants of non shaving black Jin.
From 1599 to 1644, Nurhachi and the Qing Dynasty used troops 17 times in the area inhabited by Hezhen people. Before entering the customs, a total of 720 men, 1820 women and children, a total of 2552, were brought back in the last military use, all of which were subordinate to the eight banners. The main reasons for the use of troops against the Hezhen nationality are "slow and not paying tribute", "your ancestors were all Chinese, and they were very clear. They knew what they didn't know, so they were willing to stay away from the outside", and the big nationalist consciousness that "their nature is violent and should be good to prevent it", which shows that the community identity consciousness of the Hezhen nationality has been formed in the early Qing Dynasty, and there is a national boundary consciousness between the Hezhen nationality and the Nvzhen ministries, Hezhe nationality has existed as an independent community of people. In the 53rd year of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1714), a city with three surnames was established and a government office with three surnames was established; In the fifth year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1727), the three surnames were added; In the seventh year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1729), Yilan Deputy capital system was added; In the 10th year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1732), the three surnames were changed to Deputy Du Tong, subordinate to general Ning Guta; In the eighth year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (1882), xieliang yamen was set up in ga'erdang. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, the state and county system was established successively in Huachuan, Fujin, Tongjiang, Fuyuan, Raohe and other places, and the Hezhe nationality was divided into the counties where it was located.
After the Qing government conquered the Hezhen nationality, it managed the Hezhen nationality by "compiling households" and "compiling flags", which further weakened the remnants of its clan system and accelerated the formation of regional relations, resulting in the polarization between the rich and the poor, which promoted the development of the Hezhen national community. However, at the beginning of the formation stage of Hezhen nationality, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty adopted the policy of weakening and assimilation, and the population continued to drain. Before the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, he zhe Ren (Buddha Manchu) who was incorporated into the Eight Banners integrated into the Manchu nationality. After the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, a large number of Hezhen people were incorporated into "Yiche (New) Manchuria" and gradually assimilated into the Manchu nationality. For example, in the 13th year of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1674), he zhe people of "huerha Department" were moved to ningguta (now Ning'an City, Heilongjiang Province) and compiled into 40 "new Manchu assistant leaders" (2000 troops); In the 53rd year of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty (1714), more than 1530 strong men with three surnames were compiled into four "new Manchu assistant leaders". In the ninth year of Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1731), after the three surnamed xieliang yamen was upgraded to the Deputy capital unified yamen, the number of troops was greatly expanded. In addition to 800 soldiers from Hezhe nationality with three surnames, 1000 soldiers were selected in places with eight surnames. After the Qing Dynasty entered the customs, there were nearly 60 assistant leaders of he zhe who moved to compile the flag during the years of Kangxi and Yongzheng, of which 31 assistant leaders and more than 10000 people moved to Shengjing, and the rest stayed in Jilin, with a total of more than 20000 people. These Hezhe philosophers who were incorporated into the "new Manchu assistant leader" gradually assimilated into the Manchu and became an important force for the Manchu to enter the Central Plains.
In the middle of the 17th century, czar Russia invaded the east of Baikal Lake and the Heilongjiang Basin. On September 7, 1689, China and Russia signed the Sino Russian Nebuchadnezzar treaty. Since then, Hezhen people have lived across the border and have been artificially divided into two parts. In 1858 and 1860, tsarist Russia forced the Qing government to sign the unequal Sino Russian Treaty of Huihui and the Sino Russian Treaty of Beijing, which forcibly occupied more than 600000 square kilometers north of Heilongjiang, south of waixing'an mountains, north of Heilongjiang and more than 1 million square kilometers east of Wusuli River. The vast land inhabited by Hezhen people for generations was occupied by Tsarist Russia.
Hezhen nationality fought tenaciously against the invasion of foreign enemies. In October 1651, Khabarov, the leader of tsarist Russian Cossacks, led his army to invade uzara village. About 1000 residents, including Hezhe, chiler and Manchu, launched a fierce attack on the residence of the Khabarov invaders on October 19. Hezhen fought with the Tsarist Russian invaders with spears, bows and arrows, but they were forced to retreat because the invaders had too strong firepower, resulting in 117 casualties. At dawn on April 4, 1652, ningguta Zhangjing Haise led more than 2000 cavalry, with the cooperation of Hezhe and other residents, to launch an attack on the winter camp of the Tsarist Russian invaders, "agansk". The Qing army killed 10 aggressors led by Khabarov and wounded 76 people, including Khabarov himself. From 1649 to 1655, in the six years of Khabarov's invasion of the Heilongjiang Basin, 233 invaders were killed by the Qing army and people, accounting for more than half of the 532 invaders, which dealt a heavy blow to the invaders. In 1657, tsarist Russian invaders invaded Shangjian black (meaning white stone) near the three surnames in the Songhua River Basin and robbed the grain, property and mink of Hezhe and other ethnic residents. With the cooperation of Hezhe and other ethnic residents, the Qing army dealt a heavy blow to the invaders. On July 11, 1658, Stepanov led 500 Cossacks to invade the settlements of Hezhe and other ethnic residents in the Songhua River Estuary. Ningguta Zhangjing sharhuda commanded 45 warships and 1400 Qing troops to fight with the invaders. Stepanov, the leader of the invading army, was killed and only 47 people fled. In the summer of 1660, the Tsarist Russian army invaded the lower reaches of Heilongjiang and the intersection of Songhua River and wantonly robbed Hezhen residents. With the cooperation of Hezhen, the Qing army ambushed the enemy near gufatan village north of Boli, killing more than 60 invaders. The Tsarist Russian invaders were eventually driven out of the Heilongjiang Basin.
After the September 18th Incident in 1931, the Hezhen nationality rose up against the invaders. In 1932, more than 20 Hezhen youths living in susutun and wanlihuotongtun joined the Sixth Army of the Northeast Anti Japanese coalition army. In the same year, more than 40 Hezhen youths living in Jiejinkou, Qindeli, ha Yu and other places joined the Anti Japanese coalition army and were organized into an independent unit. From 1941 to 1942, in order to prevent Hezhen people from "connecting with the Soviet Union" or joining the Anti Japanese coalition army, under the slogans of "eliminating politics by public security" and "strengthening public security", the Japanese puppet authorities implemented the reactionary policy of "strengthening walls and clearing wilderness, gathering villages and villages", forcibly drove 237 Hezhen people living along the Bank of the huntong River away from the Bank of the river and merged them into the so-called first, second and third tribes in the swamp 40 ~ 50 kilometers away from the Bank of the river. Due to the extremely poor living environment and the spread of diseases, 72 of the 237 people died, accounting for 30.4% of the population. On May 22, 1943, 24 Hezhen clans smuggled into the Soviet Union to spy on the enemy for the Soviet army and act as translators and guides. On September 20, 1945, four people were awarded the three-level Anti Japanese medal by the presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the former Soviet Union. During the war of resistance against Japan, Hezhen soldiers and civilians fought bravely and contributed to the victory of China's war of resistance against Japan.
The Hezhen nationality has suffered many historical disasters of sharp population decline in.
According to the records of the last years of Kangxi, 2398 Hezhen households, with about 12000 people, belonged to the Deputy capital of the "three surnames". During the reign of Xianfeng (1856-1857), there were 5016 people.
Around the early years of the Republic of China, there were about 1600 Hezhe people living in the lower reaches of the Songhua River, the South Bank of the mixed River and the West Bank of the Wusuli River. According to Ling Chunsheng's survey, in the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), there were 1200 Hezhen people in the lower reaches of the Songhua River, the South Bank of the huntong River and the West Bank of the Wusuli River, and 11000 nay people in Russia during the same period. Due to diseases, historical massacres and other reasons, when Japan was defeated and surrendered in 1945, there were only more than 300 Hezhen people in China, which was on the verge of extinction.
When the first national census was conducted in 1953, the population of Hezhen nationality recovered to 450; The second national census in 1964 was 718; The third national census in 1980 was 1489; The fourth national census in 1990 was 4254; In the fifth national census in 2000, there were 4640 people and in the sixth census in 2010, there were 5354 people.
Historically, Hezhen people were widely distributed in the lower reaches of Songhua River, Wusuli River Basin, the middle and lower reaches of Heilongjiang and Sakhalin Island.
The policy of household and flag arrangement of the Qing government and the practice of appointing head Hezhe as head of surname, township head and assistant leader led to a large number of mixed residence of Hezhe nationality, Han nationality and Manchu nationality during the Guangxu period, which further promoted the formation of social and regional relations between Hezhe and zhe. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, cotton nets, beaded guns and other "fast guns" appeared in Hezhe area, which promoted the development of production and the commercialization of a large number of fishery products. Agriculture was also introduced into Hezhe area. At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, there were large land occupiers and rich people with a large number of fishing and hunting production tools among Hezhen people. They made primitive accumulation by renting land and taking shares in guns, horses and fishing gear, which accelerated the stratum differentiation of Hezhen Society. On the basis of extensive regional relations and the replacement of Hezhen's own social organization and function by the national social organization of the Qing Dynasty, a unified Hezhen national identity consciousness was formed. All the above are signs that the Hezhen national community has entered a mature stage.
In 1956, bacha Hezhe village was established as bacha Hezhe township; In 1963, Jiejinkou village was established as Jiejinkou Hezhe township. Since the reform and opening up, Sipai Hezhe Township in Raohe county has been newly built. At present, there are five Hezhen inhabited villages in Jiejinkou and bacha of Tongjiang City, Sipai of Raohe County, Zhuaji of Fuyuan County and Aoqi in the suburb of Jiamusi City, and three Hezhen ethnic townships in Jiejinkou and bacha of Tongjiang City and Sipai of Raohe county. Hezhen people participate equally in the management of Party and state affairs, actively exercise their right to participate in and discuss government affairs, and have their own representatives in the Party Congress, people's Congress and CPPCC meetings of the state, provinces, regions (cities), cities and counties. According to the statistics of the fifth national census in 2000, 126 Hezhen people served as heads of state organs, party and mass organizations, enterprises and institutions, accounting for 3% of the total population. From 1986 to 2005, there were 12 cadres at or above the deputy department level in party and government organs and institutions in Heilongjiang Province, including one at the head and one at the deputy department level.
Hezhen nationality is a fishing and hunting nation, and it is the only ethnic group in the North who used to focus on fishing.
Hezhen people fish in spring, autumn and winter. During the slack season in summer, fishermen repair their fishing tools to prepare for the arrival of the fishing season. More than a month from "Guyu" to "Xiaoman" in Kaijiang is the fish flood season in spring. It is a good season for net fishing and can catch all kinds of miscellaneous fish. Around the Dragon Boat Festival, it is the peak season for catching sturgeon and shad, which can last about 20 days. The autumn fish season starts from "Bailu", which is a good season for catching salmon (salmon). After the closure of the river, fishing began in winter. The main fishing methods are fishing with nets, "fish vortex" and hook fishing.
Hunting was another major source of income for the Hezhen people in the past. Hunting activities are generally carried out collectively, and a leader of "lauderma Fa" is elected. At least two or three people, more than a dozen people, usually composed of relatives and friends. Hezhen people living in the Songhua River Basin mainly hunt deer and all kinds of fine haired animals; Among the Hezhen people living in the Wusuli River Basin, except deer and fine haired animals, minks are their main hunting objects; Hezhen people living in the lower reaches of Heilongjiang mainly hunt mink and other fine haired animals, supplemented by deer, bears, tigers and other big animals.
After 1956, Hezhe Nationality organized a joint production cooperative of fishing, hunting and agriculture. In 1959, most Hezhe people joined the state-owned farms and were mostly incorporated into the production teams of fishery and hunting, resulting in a certain economic development. After the 1960s, the land was developed on a large scale, the hunting resources decreased sharply, and the Hezhen nationality gradually gave up hunting and basically turned to fishery production.
After the reform and opening up, the Hezhen region adhered to the principle of "focusing on fishery, self-sufficiency in grain and diversified economy", and its economy has been restored and developed. In 1980, Hezhe Nationality in bacha, Jiejinkou and Sipai villages were transferred from the original production team to form a specialized fishery production team. In the form of working capital, the state allocated special funds to help production teams purchase diesel engines, update fishing boats and fishing nets, and realize the motorization of fishing boats. In 1983, household contract was implemented, and production was carried out with families as units. The enthusiasm for production was mobilized, and the per capita income increased significantly. In 1992, due to the large increase of population in the Sanjiang River Basin, the doubling of fishing vessels, the serious shrinkage of fishery resources, and the continuous decline of fishing volume year by year, the traditional fishery has lost its development space. Therefore, the state has vigorously adjusted the industrial structure of Hezhe village.
Hezhe nationality has successfully realized the historic leap from fishing and hunting nationality to agricultural nationality, and the diversified economic pattern with planting industry as the leading industry has initially taken shape.
Before the founding of new China, Hezhen people generally had primitive worship and Shamanism belief, such as totem worship, nature worship, spirit worship, ghost worship and ancestor worship. Animism constitutes the basis of Hezhen's primitive worship and primitive religious belief.
"Totem" means "his kin". Regard an animal, plant, etc. as the protector and taboo of their clan, which is related by blood. In the past, the Hezhen nationality had traces of the worship of bear totem and tiger totem. After hunting and eating bear and tiger meat, Hezhen people have rituals or actions such as apologizing for their sins.
He zhe believes that all things in nature have gods, such as tree god, Mountain God, water god, fire god, Tiger God, bear God, wolf God, Eagle God, lightning God and so on.
He zhe believes that if an object is a divine object, it can drive away evil. The worship of strange mountains, strange rocks, sacred trees and amulets belongs to the worship of spiritual objects. The custom of hanging bear, tiger, wolf and other animal teeth near the baby cradle means that the above objects can drive away evil spirits and are sacred objects to protect the baby.
He zhe people believe that all things have spirits and souls do not die, so they also believe that the souls of their ancestors do not die and worship their ancestors. They call the three generations of ancestors "bieo benmafa". During the new year, they should offer their ancestors on the west wall of the house, take pig heads as offerings and burn incense to mourn.
Animism and primitive worship are the basis of Shamanism. In the past, the Shamanism of Hezhen people had a wide range of stable believers and was once the belief of the whole people. The social function of Shamanism is to regulate the relationship between man and nature. Shamanism of Hezhen divided the universe into three realms: the upper realm (Tianting) where the gods lived; The middle boundary (human world) where human beings and gods other than gods (color Weng) live; The lower boundary (Sheol) where the dead and evil gods (bushuku) live. Later, under the influence of Han and Manchu, the concepts of "seven layers of heaven", "nine layers of heaven" and "hell" came into being. Shamanism of Hezhen believes that man has three souls: Oren, who leaves the body after the death of man or animal; "Hani" who can leave the body temporarily; "Fayang library" with the ability to create afterlife. Although there are differences in the soul views of Hezhen people in different regions, they all believe that man has a soul, which is a concrete existence; Human soul has several or several forms of existence; The human soul can leave the human body freely; People get sick or die because their souls are hurt; When a man dies, his soul must be sent to the underworld. Shamans can be divided into several types according to their different functions and mana. For example, bacha village is divided into "bachilang" shamans who treat diseases, "daksutron" shamans who send souls, "freilan" shamans who pray and intercede, and "desku" shamans who specialize in plague.
Ling Chunsheng divides the Hezhen shaman into the river god sect, the one Horned Dragon sect and the river god sect. The difference between the three schools is completely marked by the antlers on the hat: one on the left and one on the right of the hat of Heshen school; One Horned Dragon sect has two branches on the left and right; Jiangshen sect has 3 branches on the left and right.
Shaman's functions mainly include jumping God to see a doctor, jumping deer god, asking for children, sacrificing God of heaven, sacrificing Jixing temple, family sacrifice, divination, funeral (sending soul), etc.
Hezhen people's houses are primitive and primitive.
Temporary accommodation includes cusps with pointed domes, cellars, "wenteha", straw huts, etc. The fixed residence has a horse rack and a main house covered with grass.
The Hezhen nationality in history also lived in tree houses, which are the traces of nesting. Fish houses are generally built on the east or west side of the main house to store fish and dried animal meat, grain or other items.
In the past winter, Hezhen people used dogs to pull sleds (drag Japanese clothes), skis, horses and plows, etc; In summer, birch boats (Wumo Rishen), sampans, canoes (wutongge clothes), "fast horses" (Weihu), etc. are used. "The fast horse is made of birch skin. It is more than Zhang long and about two feet wide. It is narrower at both ends to accommodate one person. It is as fast as the wind.".
Dogs pull sleds with three or four dogs at least, and dozens of dogs at most. It is spectacular to fly on the vast snow field for more than 100 kilometers a day. Birch skin boats need more than ten people to paddle; Light, such as the "birch skin fast horse" boat, can be carried by one person and rowed flexibly. It is a powerful assistant for forking fish and transmitting information. Horses are indispensable friends for Hezhen people to hunt, ride and carry goods.
Hezhen people mainly eat fish, animal meat and wild vegetables, and millet is a non-staple food.
Hezhen people's diet is divided into raw and cooked.
Raw food includes fresh fish and dried fish and animal meat; Cooked foods include fish floss, stewed fish, fried fish, fried fish, roasted fish, dried animal meat, stewed meat, fried meat, fish porridge, etc. Fish floss is a must for every meal. Raw fish include sturgeon, shad, carp, white fish, grass root fish, silver carp, etc.
Hezhen people often eat lettuce fish mixed with vegetables. After the fish is bled, cut the fish meat into thin filaments, mix it with wild "scallion" and wild pepper, and add an appropriate amount of vinegar and salt. In spring, summer and autumn, live fish and fresh fish meat are removed, cut into thin slices, dipped in vinegar and salt, which is called "labutka"; Remove the fresh fish, cut it into thin slices connected to the fish skin, put it on a string of sharpened fresh wickers, burn it in a high fire, cook it three or four times, and dip it in vinegar and salt, which is called "dahlege cut"; Cut the peeled frozen fish into thin frozen fish slices (similar to shavings) and dip them in vinegar, salt water and chili oil. It is called "suriac", which is a delicacy for drinking.
Historically, the clothing and bedding of Hezhen people were made of fish and animal skin.
Hezhen people living along the huntong River, above Qindeli in the Tongjiang River to the lower reaches of the Songhua River mainly use roe deer skin and deer skin as clothing materials, and only fish skin is used for μ and trousers. Hezhen people from Qindeli down to the lower reaches of huntong River and Wusuli River mostly make clothes from fish skin.
Although cloth was introduced into Hezhen area very early, it was really popular in the late Qing Dynasty. "Men wear fur as their hats, while in winter they wear mink hats and fox fur. Women wear hats like ducks, and their clothes are mostly fish skin, with colored cloth and copper bells on the edge", which refers to the clothing situation of Hezhen people at that time.
In the past, the animal skin clothing of Hezhen people mainly included: roe deer (deer) fur coat, roe deer (deer) fur coat, trousers, roe deer (deer) fur quilt, mattress, roe deer scalp hat, hand stuffy, leather socks, μ, etc. The clothes and trousers worn in winter are sewn with "leather", with many fluff and thick leather plate, warm and durable. In spring, summer and autumn, wear clothes and trousers made of early winter skin, autumn skin and summer skin (red barbed skin). The hair is short and cool. Use fish skin to make clothes, suits, μ, etc. Some clothes are decorated with shells, copper bells, copper coins and other accessories.
The traditional clothes, shoes, hats and bedding of Hezhen people are embroidered with various patterns. The collar, lapel, cuffs, hem, apron, trouser legs, hat ears, vamp and cigarette purse are embroidered with cloud patterns, geometric patterns, various flowers, butterflies, etc. Fish and animal skins are also cut into various patterns, and then dyed into various colors with pigments or natural plant pigments. In particular, women's clothes are embroidered or inlaid with various moire and flowers on the collar, lapel, sleeves and apron. In the past, flowers were also used to dye fish and animal skin clothes, which was very beautiful. Cut all kinds of small cloth blocks into triangles, squares and diamonds, and put them together into various geometric patterns to make quilts and mattresses.
The etiquette of Hezhen nationality is centered on the patriarchal system, and respecting the elderly and maintaining the authority of the elderly is the center of its etiquette.
In the past, daughter-in-law could not eat at the same table with her father-in-law, and had to stand by the door waiting for dinner. The sister-in-law can't talk to her brother face to face. She has to ask someone to convey something when she has something to do. "When relatives come and go, it's polite to see each other.". When the younger generation sees the elder, they should kneel down and worship, and the elder kisses the younger generation on the cheek and forehead. Treat guests with courtesy and stay for dinner and drinking. Fish heads must be presented to guests as a token of respect.
Today's etiquette is similar to that of other neighboring nationalities.
In social life and production activities, Hezhen people used customary laws and taboos to restrict people's behavior in the past. When many fishermen fish in the same fishing ground, they should abide by the mutually agreed rotation system; The hunting ground is owned by the public. Whoever comes to the hunting ground first will obtain the temporary hunting right; The hunting ground shall be divided before hunting, and no cross-border fishing is allowed during hunting, etc.
The taboos of Hezhen people are mainly reflected in fishing and hunting production activities. They are not allowed to tell strange stories and lies when fishing and hunting, believing that it will offend the gods and can't catch fish and animals; When hunters meet, they must go to their own residence for a meal, etc. Women and pregnant women are regarded as the focus of taboos: pregnant women and menstrual women are not allowed to go to fishing grounds and fishing boats, otherwise they can't catch fish; Women cannot sit across shotguns, bullets and other fishing and hunting tools; Women are not allowed to sit and cross men's clothes; Pregnant women should not chop fish heads, otherwise the baby will be deformed; Women can't kick the bow of the boat, otherwise they will lose their luck and so on.
Hezhen people have many games and traditional sports activities.
Fork grass ball is a game activity loved by Hezhen teenagers, which is held in spring and autumn every year. The number of people is not fixed. They are divided into two teams. Each team holds a wooden fork with a length of seven or eight feet. First, team a throws the grass ball to team B. everyone in team B holds the fork ball. If they fork the grass ball, they will move forward several steps, otherwise they will retreat several steps. Then team B serves, team a forks the ball, and so on. If it exceeds the predetermined boundary, it is the winner. Later, the rules changed and the winner was the one who won more times. He who crosses several times in a row wins. This game was originally designed to train teenagers to use "Jida" (spear).
In addition, Hezhe games and traditional sports activities include ice grinding, grass shooting, forking fish, skiing, archery, skating, boat racing, horse riding, dog sledding, snowball fights, wrestling, tug of war, "pulling sticks", etc.
Since 1985, "wurigong" cultural and sports conference has been held in Hezhen inhabited areas. Since 1988, it has been held every three years. At the "wurigong" conference, there were not only artistic performances, but also competitions and performances such as archery, "Du Lieqi", grass fork ball, tug of war, neck strength, wrestling, swimming, "deer hair ball", boating, wrist pulling, fish fork and so on. "Wurigong" conference has become an important form of inheriting Hezhe traditional culture and a famous brand for developing tourism economy.
The Hezhen people in history have their own traditional handicrafts.
Men mainly make boats, iron tools and engage in weaving and carpentry.
Women are dexterous and are the main body of handicraft industry. They use fish and animal skins as raw materials to make exquisite clothes, living and production appliances.
Hezhen people made exquisite products with birch bark, ranging from birch bark boats to dozens of boxes, bowls, boxes, barrels, basins and so on. All kinds of birch skin, wood products and production tools are carved with various exquisite patterns, such as cloud patterns, flowers, birds and animals, landscape, etc.
In 1999, Jiejinkou, bacha, Sipai and other Hezhe schools reached the provincial standardized school standards. In that year, four village schools successfully passed the provincial and national "nine year universal education" acceptance, and the student enrollment rate and consolidation rate were 100%. The Hezhen inhabited area is the first of the 55 ethnic minorities to realize the "universal nine-year" education, and it is also the first to eliminate youth illiteracy.
From 1995 to 2004, 51 Hezhen students were promoted to universities through the preparatory course for ethnic minorities. Since 1987, Heilongjiang Provincial Colleges and universities have reduced the admission of Hezhe candidates by 20 points. According to the fifth national census in 2000, among the Hezhen population, 245 have a college degree, 98 have a bachelor degree and 3 have a graduate degree. The average number of years of education over the age of 6 is 9.30. By 2000, there were 358 Hezhen professional technicians.
Before the founding of new China, due to the lack of medical care and medicine, diseases spread in Hezhen areas and the population mortality rate was very high. After the founding of new China, the medical and health status has been fundamentally changed, typhoid fever, smallpox and other infectious diseases have been basically eliminated, and the Hezhen population began to flourish.
According to the fifth national census in 2000, the life expectancy of Hezhen population is 69.96. The three Hezhen townships have built health centers with complete equipment, and general operations do not go out of the township. The immunization rate of preschool children in the three townships was 100%, and the maternal and infant mortality rate was 0.
Hezhen's music is mainly folk tunes, which are divided into "marry lingkuo", "imakan", "Bai Benchu", "bobuli" and so on. "Marriage makes broad" is the basic tone of Hezhen music. It is soft and melodious. It is used to praise the beautiful nature and express the infinite love for the mountains and rivers, scenery, fertile soil and wilderness of his hometown. Wusuli boat song is created on the basis of the traditional folk tune waiting for elder brother. It not only reflects the characteristics of the traditional folk tune, but also has innovation and development. It is the treasure of Hezhe folk music.
The harmonica made of iron wire and steel sheet is the only national playing instrument. It was widely spread among Hezhen people in the past, but few players can play it now. Tambourine and waist bell were mainly used as shaman tools in the past, but later they were secularized. In "dancing deer god", playing hand drum and swinging waist bell are mass activities and are used as folk musical instruments.
The traditional dance of Hezhen mostly simulates the scenes of fishing, hunting and fighting. Swan dance shows the story of a legendary Hezhe girl who was forced to throw herself into a river and become a beautiful swan in order to resist the feudal marriage. Shaman Dance has two kinds: solo dance and group dance. Shaman sings and dances alone, which is called solo dance. After the opening of the river in spring or before the freezing in autumn, on a clear day, shamans lead people to "dance deer gods", with waist bells shaking, hand drums singing and competing with each other. This is a vivid picture of the customs of northern ethnic minorities. This is group dance. After the founding of new China, these religious dances have disappeared, but after practice and sublimation, they have evolved into modern dances.
Hezhen people are a nation rich in folk storytelling and singing literature, including "imakan" (RAP story), "telungu" (legend), "Shuo Huli" (story), "marriage is broad" (folk song), riddles, proverbs, etc.
Among them, the most influential is "imakan". There are large sections of lyrics, and the speakers vividly imitate the old age tune, youth tune, men's tune, women's tune, help tune, victory tune, etc. With exaggerated imagination, rich folk spoken language and vivid metaphors, the speakers of "imakan" simulate the dialogue between various characters and animals, vividly and vividly, making the listener feel like immersive. "Imakan" works are mostly long rap, which can be rap for several days and nights. Most of the works are about blood revenge and tribal war in ancient clan society. The protagonist is mo rigen. He has many wives by means of martial arts competition and robbery. In addition to Mo rigen, there are two indispensable literary images - Shaman and Eagle "Kuo Li". Shamans have good and evil, men and women, and have extraordinary mana to help their heroes. Mo rigen's wife or sister can become a powerful Eagle "Kuo Li" in times of crisis to help Mo rigen defeat the enemy. Sometimes it is even stronger than mozigen and defeats enemies that mozigen can't defeat. In the "imakan" works, it not only describes the scene of the hero Mo rigen overcoming difficulties and dangers to defeat the strong enemy, but also describes the scenes of hunting, banquet, marriage, marriage, sacrifice to God and so on, reflecting the ancient living conditions of Hezhen nationality.
"Imakan" is an artistic treasure handed down by a fishing and hunting nation with a long history.
Spring Festival is the most important festival for Hezhen people. Some people make "Tuhuo banquet" cakes, thick plum cakes and thick porridge and distribute them to their neighbors. On New Year's Eve, there will be a series of sacrificial activities. "Burn yellow money, paper and baggage" for the dead. The west wall of the house is dedicated to the position of three generations of ancestors, and the kitchen god is dedicated above the cooker. Later, the southwest wall of the house is dedicated to the God of heaven and earth.
Influenced by the Manchu and Han nationalities, Hezhen people also celebrated the Lantern Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Mid Autumn Festival, "February 2" festival, the Qingming Festival, and the "twelfth lunar month 23" festival to worship the kitchen god. The Hezhe Nationality in the Hezhe inhabited area also celebrated the "wurigong" festival in the form of cultural and sports activities. The date is May 15 of the lunar calendar.
Hezhen people practiced clan exogamy and monogamy. In the past, rich families or officials also had polygamy. The age of marriage is generally seventeen or eighteen.
In the past, the marriage ceremony was relatively simple. The minutes of Siberia East said: "When a man marries a woman, he brings a wine pot into her house, drinks first, and then discusses the amount of silver. The first is silk and satin lamb skin, and the second is cloth. The woman agrees with her parents, that is, she sleeps together overnight, and then makes an appointment to send her away. Sometimes, women in the same makeup take a boat to the door and walk into the house. The woman holds wine to honor the guest, the guest presents cloth to her brother and sister-in-law Weng, and the dowry uses birch skin as a basket and wooden ladle."
Later, influenced by the Manchu and Han nationalities, the marriage ceremony tended to be cumbersome. Remarriage was unrestricted, similar to the first marriage, but like a car without a colorful canopy. Now, the form of marriage is not much different from that of the Han nationality.
In history, the funeral ceremony of Hezhen people has the legacy of "secondary burial": those who died in the mountain forest during hunting wrapped their bodies in birch bark or branches and put them on the tree, also known as "tree burial"; Two or three years later. He died at home and was buried three days later. Without coffin, dig a rectangular earth pit, build logs around it, put a shed cover on it, and cultivate soil to form a grave. The body lies on its knees in the tomb, and all the instruments used by the dead are used as burial objects. Later, influenced by Manchu and Han people, coffins began to be used. The child can't be buried after death. He thinks that his soul is weak and can't come out when buried underground. Therefore, he is buried in a tree or wrapped in birch bark and placed in a forest or hillside far away from his residence.
In the past, he zhe people also carried out the "stall" and "abandon stall" ceremonies. On the seventh day after the death of the man and the ninth day after the death of the woman, put the bedding in the place where the deceased slept before his death, and put the offering table next to it for food and wine every day to show that the soul of the deceased is still alive. Sending the soul of the dead to the underworld is called "putting down the stall", which is generally held 100 days after death, and later changed to the first, second and third anniversary. The ceremony of "putting down the stalls" was solemn and grand. Build a shed with reed mat or white cloth, make a puppet (ancient wooden method), wear it to represent the dead and put it into the shed. Please send the soul shaman to sit next to the puppet, beat the drum and pray for 3 days. On the third night, the puppet was put on a sled and sent to the northwest to throw away. At this time, the soul sending shaman stood high and fired three arrows to the northwest, instructing the soul of the dead to go to the underworld in the direction of the arrow. After the ceremony, families other than elders burned the dead's quilt and mattress in front of the tomb and took off their filial piety clothes.
1. Han Geng: Chinese pop singer and actor. Once the only Chinese member of super junior and the captain of its sub portfolio super Junior-M, he has terminated his contract with SM company. Han Geng's dance is well known, especially the traditional dance of ethnic minorities. Han Geng is also the torchbearer of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.
In 1996, Han Geng, only 12, went to Beijing alone to study at the Central University for nationalities. Specializing in national dance, I also learned ballet and martial arts. During this period, he has outstanding talent and has performed with the group in the United States, Russia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao and other places for many times. In 1999, Hezhe nationality, representing ethnic minority teenagers, participated in the 50th anniversary of the National Day military parade.
2. Wu Baixin (1920-1966), Hezhe nationality, from Yongji, Jilin Province, formerly known as Wu Yuhong, Wu Baixin. Contemporary talented dramatist and writer. Bai Xin studied in Fengtian Buddhist College in his early years and later joined Shenyang Xiehe troupe. He began to engage in drama activities in 1939. During the war of resistance against Japan, he created works such as the call of the sea and southbound grass, which expressed his strong dissatisfaction with Japanese imperialism and its running dogs, and was full of love for nationalism. In 1945, he joined the revolution and did literary and artistic work. He also went south with the army to liberate Hunan and Guangdong and participated in the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea. He was transferred to Harbin dialect theatre in 1958 and began his professional screenwriting career. His creation entered the golden age. He has successively created drama Huang Jiguang, lover from India, Lei Feng, Hezhen's wedding, opera YINGSHANHONG, Jiao Yulu and film literary drama visitors on the iceberg. Bai Xin has made the greatest achievements in drama and film creation. His film and literary plays "visitors on the iceberg" and drama "Hezhen's wedding" have reached a high level, representing the height and achievements of Bai Xin's drama creation. Especially the wedding of Hezhen, he successfully applied the "imakan" form of Hezhen nationality to drama creation, made a beneficial exploration on the nationalization of drama creation, and is the representative of Hezhen new literature. He died of persecution during the cultural revolution at the age of 46.
3. Bi Dachuan (1938-2012), Hezhe nationality, Jixian people in Heilongjiang, researcher of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In his youth, Bi Dachuan liked sports. In 1959, he participated in the road bicycle race of the first national games and won the title of national athlete. In 1962, Bi Dachuan graduated from the Department of mathematics of Jilin University and served as assistant researcher of Institute of mathematics, Institute of systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Later, he became a visiting professor at Stuttgart University in Federal Germany. After returning to China, he served as director of the Research Office of institute 101 of the Ministry of aerospace industry and deputy director and researcher of China Science and technology promotion and development research center of the State Science and Technology Commission. After 1988, he served as the general manager of China Innovation Corporation. Bi Dachuan is rigorous and conscientious. He is mainly engaged in the research and organization of modern control and soft science with remarkable achievements. His scientific research achievements won the major achievement award of the National Science Conference in 1978, the second prize of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the second prize of the Commission of science, technology and industry for national defense in 1980, the second prize of the National Natural Science Award in 1982 and the second prize of the national science and Technology Progress Award in 1987.
4. Wu Jincai: a generation of outstanding folk singer, story expert and "imakan" singer of Hezhen nationality. His rap imakan "anto morigen" won the national excellent folk literature award.
5. You Yonggui: a Hezhen folk artist. More than 100 of his works have been collected by relevant departments at home and abroad.
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