Jing (Chinese standard) Roman letter: Gin, Vietnamese: ng ư ời Kinh/ ʛ Jing, or Jing people, is also known as the Yue nationality (Vietnamese: ng) ư ời Việt/ ʛ Yue), the national language is Beijing language. Due to the complex language factors, it is difficult for linguists to determine its language family.
The main body of the Jing nationality is in Southeast Asia. The Jing Nationality in China is mainly distributed in Fangchenggang City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It mainly lives on the three islands of Shuwei, Shanxin and Wutou in Jiangping Town, Dongxing City. The three islands are known as the "three islands of the Jing Nationality".
Jing nationality is the main ethnic group in Vietnam, accounting for 86% of the total population of Vietnam. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Jing Nationality in China is 28199.
Jing Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Jing Nationality|
|mother tongue||Jingyu (Vietnamese)|
Chinese PinYin : Jing Zu
The Jing nationality developed from the ancient Luoyue tribe.
The ancestors of the Jing nationality migrated to China from Tushan and other places in Vietnam in the early 16th century. They first lived in zhaitou village near Wushan island and Jiangping Town, and then gradually developed to Shuwei, Shanxin, Tanji and other places. The Jing nationality is the main ethnic group in Vietnam. It was once called "Vietnamese" or "Annan", and the Yao nationality called them "Jiaozhi people". In the township treaty of Shuwei village, there is a record that "my grandfather Hongshun drifted here from Tushan in the third year (1511, the sixth year of Zhengde of the Ming Wuzong) and lived in the township". In addition, according to the accounts of Liu and Ruan, two surnames with a large population of Jing nationality, their ancestors originally lived in jiva, Vietnam, and later moved to the coast of Tushan, Vietnam to make a living by fishing. Once, when they were hunting for fish in Beihai Bay, they came to Wutou island in Dongxing City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Seeing that it was deserted and had a good fishing ground, they settled down. Up to now, there are about 16-17 generations. If each generation has 25 years, it has a history of at least 500 years, which is consistent with what is recorded in the township treaty.
Before moving to Jiangping area, the Jing nationality was in the development stage of feudal society. After the move, under the oppression and exploitation of the landlord classes of the Beijing and Han nationalities, fishing and agricultural production could not develop for a long time. On the inscriptions of "hating" (the place of singing) in hongkan village, there are records of "heavy official service, unbearable suffering" and "people's famine", reflecting the miserable life of the working people of the Jing Nationality in the past.
The Qing government established the "Jiangping inspection department" in Jiangping area. After the outbreak of the Sino French war in 1884, Jiangping Jingzu area was once occupied by French invaders. France dumped a large number of goods, plundered local specialties and cheap labor, controlled the economic lifeline of Jiangping area, and set up Catholic churches in hengwang, Zhushan and other places to enslave and paralyze the Jingzu people in spirit. They also secretly carried out various conspiracy activities such as intelligence collection and investigation of China's resources, which seriously damaged the fishery and agricultural production in the Jing nationality area.
Under the long-term rule and exploitation of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism, the Jing people lived a miserable life of hunger and cold and no political rights. The hard-working and brave Jing people, together with the Han, Yao and Zhuang people, waged many anti imperialist and anti feudal struggles. During the Sino French war, dozens of people of Beijing and Han nationalities in Shuwei, Wutou and other places, led by Du Guanghui, the Jing Nationality in Shuwei village, resolutely participated in the "black flag army" and stood in the forefront of fighting against the French invaders. When the iron hooves of the French invading army trampled on the Jiangping Jingzu area, the Jingzu people and the Han people formed a "Jiangping anti enemy volunteer army" to meet the enemy bravely. In 1886, the French invaders colluded with Pan Tui, a local bureaucrat of Wanning Prefecture, burning, killing and looting, plundering, plundering, fish and meat people, and the local people of Beijing and Han nationalities rose up to resist. Finally, the French invaders were expelled from China's territory and pan Tui was executed. During the period of the national government, the policy of national oppression and discrimination continued to be implemented in this area, the regiment Council and Baojia system were implemented, and dinlavs were drawn to force the Jing people to pay exorbitant taxes and miscellaneous taxes such as "fishing salt sea tax" and "people Ding tax". The Jing people had carried out many resistance struggles.
After the founding of the Communist Party of China in 1921, under the leadership of the party, the Jing people's anti imperialist and anti feudal revolutionary movement flourished. As early as the great revolution, the general trade union and farmers' Association were established in the Jing nationality area. Under the leadership of the Federation of trade unions, the people of Beijing, Han and other nationalities have held demonstrations and marches many times, shouting slogans such as "down with imperialism", "down with feudal warlords" and "down with corrupt officials". Under the situation of the successful development of the workers' movement, Party members went deep into the Jing fishermen and farmers and widely organized farmers' associations.
In early 1944, Japanese imperialism invaded the Jing nationality area. The Jing nationality people actively joined the Anti Japanese guerrilla group organized by the Communist Party in Jiangping area to carry out armed struggle until the victory of the Anti Japanese war.
In October 1945, the special committee of Guangdong South Road of the Communist Party of China sent a team to open up 100000 mountain base areas and launch guerrilla war. Later, the South Road special committee was changed to the Guangdong Guangxi border region Party committee, and a 100000 mountain Committee was established to lead the revolutionary work in 100000 mountain areas. The Jing people enthusiastically participated in guerrilla activities, sent food and raised funds for the guerrillas, confiscated the property of landlords and rich peasants, supported the guerrillas, and launched a heroic struggle against the Kuomintang's pursuit of the guerrillas, thus protecting the revolutionary forces.
In early 1949, the Guangdong Guangxi border area column closely cooperated with the Chinese people's Liberation Army, conquered the Jiangping stronghold and established the Fangcheng County People's Government in just eight months.
Before the founding of new China, the class differentiation in the Jing area was very obvious. Jing nationality is mainly engaged in fishing in shallow water, and also engaged in agriculture and salt industry. Landlords, rich peasants and fishery capitalists possess a large number of means of fishery and agricultural production. The landlords, rich peasants and fishery capitalists in Shuwei, Wutou, Shanxin and Tanji account for 2.93% of the total households in the four villages, and they account for 23.87% of the fishing foil in the four villages, and the average number per person is 7.54 times that of poor fishermen; 28.94% of the total number of fishing boats in the four villages; It occupies 35.09% of the cultivated land in the four villages, and the average number of cultivated land per person is 11.73 times that of poor farmers. Landlords exploit by renting fishing gear, land, fishing areas and cultivated land. In order to extract more blood and sweat from the fishermen, some landlords often rent the same piece of land to more than a dozen poor fishermen. Each household will use it for two years until decades later. The land rent of the foil land needs to be paid off at the time of signing the contract. The poor fishermen have to wait for ten or twenty years to use the foil land. People call it "rented space". Usury exploitation is also very serious. Fishermen often lose their money because of a small debt.
There is also a "dependence" relationship between landlords and poor fishermen, which is similar to the exploitation of employees. Poor fishermen who do not have foil land or rent foil land but are not turned to their own use, fish for the foil operated by the landlord, eat in their own home, have no salary, and only get 10% of the catch. This "dependence" relationship also exists between rich fishermen and poor fishermen. Land rent exploitation in agriculture is also very serious, and the rent rate generally accounts for 50% of the output. In addition to paying land rent in kind, farmers (fishermen) also have to bear all kinds of labor for the landlord. On average, each tenant has to cut firewood for the landlord for about 40 days a year. On weekdays, they have to repair houses and encircle pig pens for the landlord, and have to do odd jobs in "red and white events".
In the past, there was an organization called "Weng village" within the Jing nationality. "Weng village" contains the meaning of village head, which is held by the elderly. It is responsible for supervising the implementation of the village agreement, dealing with matters in the village, preparing for "singing ha", hosting sacrifices, etc. "Weng village" has one "Wensi" and several "Weng Guan". "Wensi" is responsible for assisting the village head in handling daily affairs. When "singing ha", he acts as the master of ceremonies, manages documents and accounts, and keeps village property. Weng Guan is responsible for managing the mountain forest and implementing the mountain forest village agreement. Article 1 of the village agreement of "Weng village" stipulates that villagers must pay taxes and perform military service, and violators shall be punished. The village covenant was once a tool for the reactionary government to rule and exploit the people. "Weng Cun" and others were puppet protectors and leaders during the Kuomintang rule, and they were the grass-roots ruling figures of the Kuomintang regime.
In 1952, three ethnic townships of Shuwei, Shanxin and Wutou were established on the three islands of Jing nationality. On May 1, 1958, Dongxing Autonomous County of all ethnic groups was jointly established on the basis of Beijing ethnic township and nearby SHIWANSHAN Zhuang and Yao Autonomous Region (county jurisdiction). In 1956, Dongxing Ethnic Autonomous County was transferred from Guangdong Province to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and renamed Fangcheng Ethnic Autonomous County on December 25, 1978. In September 1992, Dongxing development zone was established; In May 1993, Fangcheng Autonomous County and Fangchenggang district were abolished, and Fangchenggang City, a prefecture level city, was established. The three Jing islands were subordinate to the Dongxing Economic Development Zone of Fangchenggang City; In April 1996, Dongxing City (county level) was established, with the administrative areas of Dongxing, Jiangping and Malu in Fangcheng District of Fangchenggang City as the administrative areas of Dongxing City. Since then, the three Jing islands have been subordinate to Jiangping Town, Dongxing City, Fangchenggang City.
Before the founding of new China, the Jing nationality area was dominated by fishery, and there was a partnership fishing organization. Take Shanxin village as an example. At that time, the village's fishery income accounted for 70%, agriculture accounted for 27%, and others accounted for 3%. Fishery production generally belongs to shallow sea fishing, with tools such as pulling net, fishing foil, plug net, sand fish net, Limulus net, snail grill, South shrimp cage, etc. the quantity of production tools is small, the quality is poor, and the operation methods are relatively backward. Net pulling, net plugging and tachypleus amebocyte lysate net are large-scale fishing gear, which need more investment. They are generally shared by several or dozens of households and used in partnership. In this kind of labor organization, an old fisherman with strong labor force, rich experience and comprehensive technology acts as the "net head", which is responsible for organizing and arranging fishery production, adding fishing nets and implementing religious ceremonies in fishery production. The other "WANGDING" followed the command of the "wangtou". In the distribution of products, "net head" and "net Ding" also get a share, without special rights and remuneration. Net pulling, net plugging and fishing foil are small fishing gear, which are convenient to operate and do not need a lot of labor. These operations are relatively backward, the yield is low, and most of them catch small fish.
The development of agricultural production is relatively late. Fishermen are generally engaged in agriculture, and only a few people are specialized in agricultural production. There are few kinds of crops, including rice, sweet potato, taro and a small amount of corn. The main farm tools are plow, rake, hoe, field knife, sickle, drag rake, etc. they can only make some small farm tools, most of which are purchased from Han areas. The cultivated land in the Jing nationality area is less, mostly sandy soil, which is both barren and drought resistant. The cultivation is extensive, and the yield is not high, with an average yield of about 100 kg per mu. The grain produced each year is only enough for three or four months. The rest of the grain needed and the means of production and livelihood should be exchanged with the Han people with fishery products. Handicraft industry and household sideline industry, with fishery juice making as the most common, have become an important economic income in Jing nationality areas. The second is to burn clam shell and crab shell as fertilizer. In addition, there are handicrafts such as wood and woven bamboo, which are both used in the leisure time of fishing and agriculture.
At the beginning of the founding of new China, the Jing nationality area was still a poor Island lacking land, food and water. In the mid-1960s, the government funded and organized the masses to carry out large-scale "reclaiming land from the sea", built more than 10 nautical miles of breakwater, connected the three islands with the land into a peninsula, and reclaiming land from the sea increased a large area of land. At the same time, fresh water was introduced to Shanghai Island to vigorously develop agriculture, which changed the history that the Jing nationality areas could not produce grain "in large quantities". In terms of fishery production, the Jing people have added mechanical sail fishing boats, sail light fishing boats, light nets and detectors, which has greatly increased the fish production. At the same time, natural pearls are cultivated by taking advantage of environmental advantages, and artificial pearl farms are also established to vigorously carry out artificial culture.
After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee, the reform and opening up has brought earth shaking changes to the three islands of the Jing nationality. In 1992, Dongxing development zone was established. In the same year, the State Council approved Dongxing as an open town along the border, and the Special Zone Office of the State Council approved the establishment of Dongxing border economic cooperation zone. Since then, the fishery production and sales policy began to be liberalized, and the Sino Vietnamese border trade began to recover, which prompted the Jing nationality located in Jiangping Town, Dongxing City to obtain a once-in-a-lifetime historical opportunity for economic development and national revitalization.
After the reform and opening up, the Jing nationality has changed the previous situation of focusing on the production of small nets and small bamboo rafts, and used tailors and advanced fishing gear with small body, fast speed, flexible operation and low fuel consumption, so as to ensure the relative stability of income from sea operations. While fishing in the sea, the Jing people also continued to explore the market and develop the seafood processing industry, which improved the comprehensive economic benefits of fishery production.
After the reform and opening up, the coastal, land and shallow beach aquaculture industry is a high-efficiency emerging industry for the three islands of the Jing nationality, and it also plays an important role in poverty alleviation and prosperity for the three islands of the Jing nationality. The three islands of Jing nationality have more than 10000 mu of shallow sea beach that can be developed and utilized, tens of thousands of mu of water surface that can be developed into mariculture on the seashore and land, and tens of thousands of mu of low-lying land that can be developed into mariculture farms in the inland. These fishery and aquatic resources with great advantages have begun to be developed and utilized and achieved remarkable economic benefits. Wutou village can develop an area of about 10000 mu for breeding, and 3000 mu of water surface has been developed and utilized for breeding shrimp, Meretrix, snail, mud clam and other varieties.
After the reform and opening up, border trade and tourism have become the two emerging pillar industries of Jing nationality. Jing nationality is a cross-border nationality. They share the same language and traditional culture with the main ethnic group of Vietnam. They make use of their unique geographical conditions to vigorously develop border trade. In the early 1990s, almost every household had people involved in border trade, and some families even the whole family went out.
Jing people live along the coast, and fishing in the sea has naturally become their main economic life. On the beach and in the village, the first impression is that there are piles of various fishing gear. Net pulling, gill net (fixed thorn, flow thorn, rotary thorn), plug net, as well as shark net, South shrimp net, jellyfish net, Limulus net and cuttlefish net specially for specific fishing objects. The number of fishing gear and fine division of labor have formed the developed fishery culture and unique fishery style of the Jing nationality.
Fishing foil is a unique traditional facility in the fishing and hunting production of Jing nationality. Fishing with fishing foil has a history of more than 200 years. The fishing foil is quite like the eight trigrams array in ancient times. Jing people with rich fishing experience insert wooden columns in two rows on both sides of the beach fissure with inclined terrain and rapid water flow until the lowest tide line. Between the wooden columns, thin bamboo strips, bamboo strips or mountain vines are woven into a "fence" fence to form a "fence ditch" like a funnel. In the "funnel", three large to small "fish Chambers" (also known as "fish port") are woven with bamboo chips and wooden strips. The fish chambers are connected with each other, and "cage whiskers" are arranged at each entrance. At high tide, the tide flooded the ground with fish and shrimp; At low tide, fish and shrimp are trapped in the fish room. Fishermen rowed bamboo rafts in light boats and entered the fence ditch to cover the fish and harvest as much as possible.
The religious belief of the Jing people is polytheism. They also believe in Taoism and Buddhism. Some people also believe in Catholicism.
The largest temple in the "three islands of Jing Nationality" is Lingguang Buddhist temple. The bronze bell in the temple was cast in 1787 and contains Guanyin Bodhisattva.
In addition, there are also Sanpo Temple (where Guanyin is worshipped, and many women come here to seek children) and Youpo Temple (where Ma Yuan, general Fubo of the Han Dynasty, is worshipped).
In terms of dietary customs, the Jing people take rice as their staple food, sweet potato and taro as miscellaneous food, and like to eat fish, shrimp, crab, fish juice and glutinous rice products. Women like to chew betel nut. Fish and shrimp are the favorite food and cooking skills of the Jing people.
Jing fishermen usually marinate a kind of sauce with small fish, called "catfish juice", which is one of the unique products in Jing area. Fish juice is a traditional condiment of Jing nationality. Its method is: first wash the small fish, put it into a large jar or wooden bucket, add salt in layers, compact, cover and seal it. After a few months, the small fish will gradually dissolve and secrete a red juice, namely fish juice. The first filtered fish juice is oily, rich in flavor and mellow in taste; The fish juice after the second filtration is called second leakage, with slightly poor color and taste; After the third filtration, take out the fish bone residue as beverage or fertilizer. Fish sauce can be seasoned or served with meals.
In addition, men and women of the Jing nationality like to eat a crisp and refreshing round Ciba - "wind blowing cake". "Wind blown cake" is steamed with rice flour, sprinkled with sesame, dried, and then baked over charcoal fire. Jing people generally like to eat sugar and like to entertain guests with glutinous rice and sugar porridge.
Jing men wear a topless jacket without collar and button. One or two colored belts are also tied around the waist; Some are tied to as many as five or six, and show their wealth or ability by the number of belts. Because the shirt is over the knee and the split flag of the shirt fork is very long, the clothes on both sides are usually lifted up, tied into a ball knot and placed in the abdomen. The colors of men's shirts are light blue, light blue or light brown. Trousers are used to wearing black, both wide and long; Its crotch is especially long, almost 2 / 3 of the length of trousers.
Young women usually wear white, green or grass green tops, and their trousers are mostly black or brown. Middle aged women like to wear blue or light green tops with black pants. Older women often wear brown clothes or black clothes and black trousers. The width of the trousers is no different from that of men. At first glance, they look like floating long skirts. Women's blouses, on the contrary to men, are very short, and their feet only reach the waist rather than the hips, so there is a saying that "they are not as long as the hips". His clothes are open without collar, and his chest is covered with a diamond shaped cloth embroidered with patterns. This rhombic cloth is usually called "breast covering", also known as "breast covering", which is one of the commonly used decorations for women. When Jing women go out from the village, rush to the market or visit relatives and friends, they also need to wear a cheongsam like low collar, narrow sleeve and chest bare long shirt with wide hem, and wear a black or brown dome top hat (commonly known as "headband").
In the past, every family of the Jing nationality lived in the wasteland and forest. The houses are all crude thatched cottages, with rough wooden strips and bamboo pieces woven on the walls, and some are pasted with a layer of mud, or bamboo strips with thatched grass and straw as the walls; The roof is covered with thatch, branches and leaves or straw, and very few people build tiles. A pillar made of wood or bamboo at the four corners of a house. On the column pier, wooden strips and thick bamboo pieces are erected horizontally and vertically, and rough bamboo mats or grass mats are paved on it to form a "floor". This kind of "thatched cottage" is called "fence house" by the Beijing family. It has the ancient cultural accumulation of Baiyue "Ganlan" architecture, but it is simple. People live on the "floor" and poultry live under the "floor".
Since the 1950s, with the continuous development of production, the living conditions of Jing nationality have changed. The obvious sign of this change is the widespread emergence of "stone strip tile houses" instead. "Stone tile house" is a residence made of rectangular light brown stone strips (each stone is 0.75 meters long, 0.25 meters wide and 0.20 meters high). The stone tile house is divided into three single rooms on the left, middle and right by stone or bamboo boards. The one in the middle is the "main hall", commonly known as the "main room"; There is a shrine on the front wall, commonly known as "public shed". In addition to offering sacrifices to gods in festivals, the main hall is usually a place for receiving guests, eating, drinking tea and talking. It is also used as a "living room". The two rooms on the left and right are bedrooms or kitchens.
After the reform and opening up, the housing conditions of Jing villagers have been greatly improved. Most residents have built buildings with reinforced concrete structure, and the indoor facilities are very neat and beautiful. Fruit trees, bamboo forests, sisal, evergreen, cactus and coconut trees are generally planted around the house, which not only beautifies the environment, but also prevents wind and sand.
The Jing nationality has its own language, but due to the complex language factors, it is difficult for linguists to determine its language family. With the long-term friendship between the people of Beijing and Han, the vast majority of the people of Beijing speak Chinese (Cantonese dialect) and Chinese.
The word "Nan" has been used in history. "Zi Nan" means the word of the south, that is, mumbling. It is the national character created by the Jing people on the basis of using Chinese characters at the end of the 13th century. Before the founding of new China, it was still retained and used in song books and religious scriptures. It is known that the vast majority of those who still use Beijing hake (HA, Beijing transliteration, i.e. singing) are elderly people over the age of 50. There are only more than 10 elderly people who understand the word Nan on the three islands of the Jing nationality.
With the improvement of economic level, some Jing people began to initiate the protection of their own language and characters.
The folk stories, myths and legends orally circulated by the Jing nationality are rich in content and vivid in plot, which give people the enjoyment of ideological nutrition and beauty, mainly including King Zhenhai, Song Zhen and Chen chrysanthemum, Tian tougong, Ji Shu, Liu Er dozen fan ghosts, etc.
Due to the long-term friendly exchanges and mutual influence between the Beijing and Han nationalities, the folk stories of the Han nationality "Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai" and "the story of Dong Yong" are also widely spread in the Beijing areas.
"Beijing Opera" is a traditional opera of the Jing nationality, also known as "ridicule opera", with unique national characteristics. Traditional operas include Ruan Wenlong's heroic killing of the enemy and matchmaker. The Han Chinese classical opera "Er Du Mei" is also popular in the Jing area.
The musical instruments of the Jing nationality include single string piano, erhu, flute, Gong, drum and so on.
The single string piano is a unique national musical instrument of the Jing nationality. The structure of the instrument is simple, and the music played is rich in tones and beautiful monochrome, which is the biggest feature of the solo. The body of the single string piano is made of more than half a bamboo tube or rectangular wooden box, about three and a half feet long. One end is inserted with a log column perpendicular to the body, and the other end is tied with a string line with a handle and connected with a small column to form a single string piano. The volume of the single string is small and the music is elegant. When playing, use a small bamboo plucked string to pop up a beautiful sound.
"Single string piano" and "singing ha" and "bamboo pole dance" of Jing people are known as the three pearls of Jing traditional culture.
The traditional folk dances of the Jing nationality mainly include "bamboo pole dancing", "sky lantern dancing", "music dancing" and "stick dancing", some of which are derived from folk religious dances, and some are entertainment methods in the daily life of the Jing people, with obvious cultural functions of entertaining gods or people.
In addition, there are modern dances - "rowing dance", "paper horse dance", "wine dance", "Sky Lantern Dance" and so on.
The national festivals of the Jing nationality mainly include "Ha Festival", "Spring Festival", "Zhongyuan", "new rice Festival", etc. "Ha Festival" is a grand national festival in the custom of Jing nationality at the age of. It holds four important activities: worship of gods, ancestor worship, entertainment and rural drinking. The date of "Ha Festival" varies from place to place. Shuwei and Wutou islands are on the tenth day of June, Shanxin island on the tenth day of August, and hongkan village on the fifteenth day of the first month.
"Ha Festival" is held in "Ha Ting", and "Ha Ting" is built everywhere. The "hating" in each village is made of high-grade wood, with firm structure and unique national form. The middle of the roof ridge is decorated with a festive image of double dragons playing with beads. Hatting is divided into left and right side halls and main hall; The main hall has the throne of gods believed by the Jing family. The columns in the hall are carved with couplets or poems with national customs.
The whole process of festival activities is generally divided into the following four parts:
Welcoming God: the day before "singing ha", the team held up the flag and umbrella, carried the God seat to the sea, welcomed the God from a distance and welcomed the God into Hatting.
Offering sacrifices to gods: the specific time of offering sacrifices to gods is about 3 p.m. on the day of the festival. When offering sacrifices to gods, read sacrifices.
Sit down and listen to ha: after offering sacrifices to gods, sit down, drink and listen to ha, which is called "sitting Meng" (also known as "Ha banquet"). 6 to 8 people per seat. Except that a few are provided by "Hatou", most of the wine and food are prepared by each family, and each meal is served by the participants in turn. Listen to "Ha Mei" singing while eating. Women only serve dishes on the table and can't sit at the table. Women and children are listening to music outside "hating". "Sing ha" for three consecutive days.
Send God: "send the God after singing together". When sending the God, you must read the word to send the God.
The Jing people celebrate the Zhongyuan Festival on July 15. On the morning of the festival, we cook glutinous rice and glutinous rice sugar porridge to worship our ancestors. At noon, we kill chickens, ducks and boiled pork to worship our ancestors. Then we eat and drink. Before 1949, the Jing people also burned paper clothes, paper shoes, cartons, gold, silver and paper ingots to commemorate their ancestors.
On the tenth day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar, the Jing people harvest new grain to sacrifice the Lord Tiantou and reward him for blessing the harvest of rice seedlings. This is the "new rice Festival". On the afternoon of October 10, each family cooked new rice to worship "Tiantou Gong" and ancestors, and then the whole family ate new rice.
The family organization of the Jing nationality is a small patriarchal family. In Shuwei, Wutou, Shanxin, Tanji, hongkan and other places, the average number of people in each family is no more than 5. Only some families are three or four generations together, up to a dozen people in the whole family.
In the past, the marriage of Jing nationality was monogamous. Before the founding of new China, the Jing nationality generally did not intermarry with foreign nationalities; The same surname or five clothes cannot intermarry; Intermarriage between cousins is strictly prohibited. Some of the Jing people believe in Catholicism. The marriage system and ceremony are carried out according to the Catholic rules and no longer follow the family rules.
Young men and women of the Jing nationality have a unique way of love. They use songs to exchange thoughts and feelings, make friends and look for couples. In the past, there was a special engagement custom of "Marrying clogs" in Jing areas. That is, the man asks the matchmaker to ask the woman for marriage. The matchmaker arbitrarily takes a clog worn by the man, and then the woman's parents arbitrarily take out a clog of their daughter. If the clogs form a pair (one left and one right), the marriage is done, otherwise it will be scattered. After the founding of new China, this marriage custom has changed. Young men and women fall in love freely and register for marriage.
The Jing people also have taboos related to fishing life. For example, if you are a guest in a fisherman's house, don't say that the meal is burnt, because "Jiao" is the same as "reef", which is unlucky. Fishermen are most afraid of hitting the reef.
Don't say "oil" on the ship. Oil is called "water skiing", because "skiing" means "smooth", "smooth" and "smooth", and "oil" is the same as "swimming". Only when people fall into the water after the ship is broken can they "swim".
Moving utensils should be picked up and cannot be pushed or dragged because they are suspected of "grounding".
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