Hani nationality, known as aka nationality in Southeast Asia, whose national language is Hani Language, belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Modern Hani nationality uses newly created Pinyin characters based on Latin letters.
Hani people are mainly distributed between Yuanjiang and Lancang rivers in Yunnan, China. They live in Honghe, Jiangcheng, Mojiang, Xinping, Zhenyuan and other counties, as well as the northern mountainous areas of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.
According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Hani nationality in China is 1660932.
Hani Nationality Wiki:
|1.63 million people (2010 Census)
|Polytheism and ancestor worship
|Yunnan, China, Myanmar, Myanmar and other northern mountainous areas
Chinese PinYin : Ha Ni Zu
There are many internal branches of Hani nationality, and there are many kinds of self claiming units, including Hani, katuo, Yani, Honi, Biyo and Baihong. There are also self claiming units such as Oh Nu, amu, Duoni, Kabel and haini.
The mutual names of self claiming units within the nation are also inconsistent with the appellations of other nationalities to the Kazakh nation. For example, Hani of Yuanyang calls each other nuomi, nuobi, Gehe, etc; Yani are called Jue Wai and Jue Jiao, and the Han nationality is also called Aini; Call horny Budu, oh Nu simolo, etc. In Chinese historical records, the historical names of Hani nationality include: Heyi, Heman, he Ni, wo Ni, wo Ni, wo Ni, Russian Ni, a Ni, Hani, u Ni, amu, lomen, nuobi, Lubi, kanian, Biyo, HAONI, inerta, etc. It can be seen that most of them are similar or the same as the current self claiming and mutual calling.
Although there are many self proclaimed and historical names of Hani nationality, their pronunciation and meaning are basically the same. The main ones claim to be Hani, HAONI, Heini, and he ni. Their Hani, Hao, Hei, and he all sound like "harmony", and their meaning is "harmony". The historical names of Heyi, Heman, he Ni, he Ni, wo Ni, good offices mud, Russian mud, a Ni, Hani, lomen (claiming to be he ni), nuobi (claiming to be Hani), etc. Their Wo, wo, good offices, Russia, a and ha also follow the sound of "harmony", and the meaning is still "harmony". It can be said that the Hani nationality has basically had a unified name "He Ren" for more than 2000 years.
After 1949, according to the opinion of the majority of the nation, the largest number of people claimed to be "Hani" as the unified name of the nation.
Hani nationality, Yi nationality, Lahu Nationality and so on are homologous to the ancient Qiang nationality. The ancient Qiang people were nomadic on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. From 384 BC to 362 BC, the Qin Dynasty expanded rapidly. The nomadic groups of ancient Qiang people living on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau were attacked, dispersed and migrated, and some names of Qiang people evolved. "Heyi" is a branch of the southern migration tribe of the ancient Qiang people. After they settled on the Bank of the Dadu River, they began farming life in order to adapt to the geographical environment and conditions of the local Pingba and "hundreds of valleys grow by themselves". After the Hani people settled down on the Dadu River, they were forced to leave the agricultural settlement due to war and other reasons and migrate again into Ailao Mountain in the subtropical zone of Yunnan Province. According to historical records, the "Heyi" tribe, which moved south of the Dadu River in the 3rd century BC, is today's Hani ancestors. From the 4th century to the early Tang Dynasty in the 8th century, some Hani ancestors moved westward to the Lancang River area west of the Yuanjiang River. In the documents of the Tang Dynasty, the ancestors of the Hani nationality were called "he man".
In the middle of the 7th century, the great leaders of "he man" paid tribute to the Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty included the names of "he man" leaders in the imperial edict to the leaders of all ethnic groups in Yunnan, and recognized them as subordinates of the Tang Dynasty. After the establishment of "Nanzhao" and "Dali" local governments, among the "37 Manjun" in the East, "guanguisituo Department", "xichudian Department", "Banxi luomei Department" and "tierongdian Department" are all in Honghe area where Hani people live today.
In the 10th century (Dali Period), Hani people paid tribute to Dai feudal lords and began to enter the feudal society.
After the Yuan Dynasty conquered the "Dali" regime, Yuanjiang road military and civilian general office was set up, subordinate to Yunnan Province.
In the Ming Dynasty, the chieftain system was implemented in the minority areas of Yunnan. The Hani tribal leaders were granted the title of local official by the Ming Dynasty and were ruled by the subordinate officials.
In Yunnan, the Qing Dynasty changed the land to flow, abolished some local officials in Hani areas, and the flow official system replaced the chieftain system in some places. However, local officials such as Situo, Xichu, luomei, Zuo Neng, wazha, nageng and yuzhuoka were still retained, and the chieftain was still the ruler of these areas.
In 1853 (the third year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty), under the influence of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement, Tian Silang, a poor Hani farmer (also known as Tian Zheng, Tian Yizheng and people from Mojiang County), gathered 3000 poor Doha Ni, Yi and Bulang farmers to hold an uprising in LVYE aobi village, tuantan Township, and quickly occupied the middle part of Ailao Mountain.
In 1856, the uprising army led by Tian Silang and the uprising army led by Li Wenwen of the Yi nationality fought together. Economically, the uprising army implemented the land program of "the land originally cultivated by the common people belongs to the common people, does not pay rent, 20% tax, and does not accept shortage", which was supported by poor farmers of all ethnic groups.
In 1895, France forced the Qing government to cede five "fierce" areas, including mengbeng, Menglai, mengsuo, MengWu and Wude, among the "fifteen fierce" in the south of Ailao Mountain.
In 1900, the Han, Hani, Yi and other nationalities in Mengzi rose up and burned the foreign pass opened by the invaders in Mengzi. On this pretext, France sent troops to occupy Mengding (now Longbei area of Jinping County), and the Hani and people of all ethnic groups repulsed the invading army.
In 1917, a joint uprising of Hani, Miao, Yi, Dai and other nationalities broke out in nearly 200 villages in Mengnong, Yuanyang County and Mengding area, Jinping County. The leader of the uprising army was lumeibei, a poor peasant woman of Hani nationality in Yuanyang.
In 1925 and 1935, France sent troops to invade Honghe, Lvchun, Jinping, Jiangcheng and other places twice, and was bravely counterattacked by Hani and people of all ethnic groups.
After the founding of the Republic of China, the national government gradually changed the land to flow in Ailao Mountain Area on the South Bank of the Red River, and implemented the District, township and town system. However, the chieftain district is still a "place where officials cannot enter", and the chieftain system is still intact.
After the founding of new China in 1949, the chieftain feudal lord system was abolished.
In April 1951, the Central Ethnic delegation visited Honghe area, which brought the Party Central Committee's warm care for the people of all ethnic groups and greatly encouraged the Hani people.
In 1951, the Central Ethnic delegation helped establish the national democratic coalition government of Mengzi autonomous region and the national democratic coalition government of Yuanyang County.
At the beginning of 1952, bandits and spies entrenched in Hani areas had been basically eliminated, social order was stable, and democratic reform and the development of production and creation began.
In 1952, the Administrative Council of the Central People's government promulgated the "outline for the implementation of regional national autonomy". In the same year, the Hani region established the "people's Government of Honghe Hani Autonomous County", the "people's Government of Taihe Hani, Yi and Dai joint autonomous region of Yuanyang County" and the "people's Government of malizhai Hani Autonomous township of Yuanyang County".
In 1953, the "Gelang and Hani Autonomous Region" in Xishuangbanna was established.
On New Year's day in 1954, Honghe Hani Autonomous Region was established.
In 1957, Honghe Hani Autonomous Region and Mengzi autonomous region merged to establish Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture.
The Hani population in Yunnan Province is 1.63 million (2010), ranking the second among ethnic minorities in Yunnan Province. Hani people in Yunnan Province are mainly distributed in Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Pu'er City and Yuxi City.
The Hani population of Honghe Prefecture is 789700, accounting for 17.5% of the total population of Honghe Prefecture; The Hani population in Xishuangbanna is 21543, accounting for 19.01% of the total population; There are 454666 Hani people in Pu'er City, accounting for 17.88% of the total population of Pu'er City; The population of Hani nationality in Yuxi City is 130279, accounting for 5.66% of the total population of Yuxi City. Hani nationality is also distributed in Kunming, Chuxiong and Qujing. The Hani population of Chuxiong prefecture is 6176, accounting for 0.2% of the total population of Chuxiong City; The population of Hani nationality in Qujing City is 2114, accounting for 0.04% of the total population of Qujing City.
Autonomous Prefecture: Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture
Autonomous counties: Mojiang Hani Autonomous County, Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County, Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous County, Yuanjiang Hani and Yi Dai Autonomous County, Zhenyuan Yi Hani and Lahu Autonomous County
Hani people are mainly engaged in agriculture and are good at growing tea. Hani nationality has a long history of growing tea. Gelang and nannuo mountain in Xishuangbanna are important producing areas of "Pu'er tea" well-known in China. The tea output of Hani nationality area accounts for one third of that of Yunnan Province.
Before the founding of new China, the productivity of Hani areas was low, the primitive and traditional agriculture dominated by grain planting was very common, the production was backward, the industry was very weak, and there were only a few local mining and smelting and handicraft workshops.
Since the founding of new China, Hani farmers have changed sloping land into terraced land and dry land into paddy field according to local conditions, built reservoirs and expanded irrigation area. The degree of agricultural mechanization has been greatly improved, and grain processing mechanization has been realized in most places. Industrial departments such as smelting, mining, machinery manufacturing, chemical industry, building materials, energy, textile, plastic products, cigarettes and food processing have been established. Gejiu City of Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture is the "tin capital" of the country.
The religious beliefs of Hani nationality are mainly multi God worship and ancestor worship. It is considered that there are powerful gods of heaven, earth, dragon and tree, village gods and family gods with the nature of protective gods, which must be sacrificed regularly and prayed for blessing. All kinds of ghosts and gods that bring diseases and disasters to people should be restricted and driven away through sacrifice and witchcraft. The Hani people in Xishuangbanna sacrifice "Longba gate" (i.e. Zhaimen) every year.
In the Hani society on the South Bank of the Red River, gods and ghosts are primary and secondary. The main gods are God, earth God, Mountain God, village god and family God. These gods should not be neglected for a moment. They should be sacrificed regularly. "Dragon tree" is regarded as the protective god of mankind, and all places offer sacrifices every year. Each village has a public dragon tree, and some places, such as the South Bank of the Red River, have their own dragon trees. In the Hani area of Xishuangbanna, the annual sheep day is the day of death. Unlucky things, such as dead people in the stronghold, wild animals entering the stronghold, dogs climbing the roof and fire, are also considered as the day of death. Production must be stopped and sacrificial activities must be carried out to avoid disaster.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Christianity was introduced into some Hani areas, and Buddhism was also spread in some areas. Few people believed in religion and had little influence. After 1949, the above-mentioned religious activities have gradually decreased.
Hani people like to make clothes with Tibetan Blue Earth cloth. The bleaching and dyeing of earth cloth is to put the indigo dye into a container, dissolve it with water and wine, and start dyeing after seven or eight days. After dyeing, soak the cloth in the glue made of cowhide, rinse it with clean water and dry it. In some areas, clothes should be re dyed once after washing to ensure bright colors.
Hani men's heads are wrapped in black or white, and the elderly wear melon skin hats, lapel tops and trousers. Wear cloth shoes or wooden shoes made of wood and palm rope. The Hani men in Xishuangbanna wore a right cardigan jacket with two rows of large silver bubbles along the large skirt. Every new year's day or date with girls, boys put beautiful feathers or flowers on their heads. The men in Lancang area wrapped their heads in black cloth and wore a pair of blouses with two lines of silver coins on the big placket and geometric figures embroidered on both sides.
Women's clothing has its own characteristics everywhere. The Red River area wears a right cardigan collarless jacket, buttons with silver coins, trousers, a shawl when wearing costumes, and some also tie flower bibs and flower leggings. There are several colored lace inlays on the shoulder support, large placket, cuffs and trouser legs, and cross stitch lace is used for the waistcoat. Wear high barrel pointed embroidered shoes. Women in Xishuangbanna and Lancang wear knee length folding skirts and leg guards. Usually barefoot, happy festivals love to wear embroidered shoes. Women wear hair and braid, and girls wear braids. Older women put braids on their heads, wrap their heads with black or blue cloth, or wear homemade hats. The hat is inlaid with small silver bubbles, material beads, or many tassels woven with silk thread. Some also like to use silver chains and strings of silver coins and silver bubbles as chest ornaments, and wear earrings and earrings. Lancang women like to wear big silver earrings.
On the festival, Hani women embroider beautiful patterns with colorful silk threads on indigo headscarves, and beautiful wreaths are hung on the front and back of their forehead. The chest of the coat is prefixed with silver bubbles and silver buttons, a large octagonal silver medal is hung in the middle, an embroidered cloth is wrapped around the calf, and a pair of velvet flowers made of red wool are tied on it.
When a Hani boy reaches a certain age, he should take off his hat and use cloth to wrap his head. At the same time, he should dye his teeth red, indicating that he is an adult and can talk about love. Hani girls wipe their hair with lard and comb it into drooping braids. When a girl reaches a certain age, she has to dye her teeth red, tie her skirt and wear silver jewelry, which shows that she is mature and can participate in the "string of girls". Adult Hani women often braid double braids and wrap them around their heads. Some girls in Mojiang wear white or pink bibs, and change to blue Bibs after marriage. The height of Bibs is a sign to distinguish whether women are married or not.
Yeche is a branch of Hani nationality. Yeche women in Honghe County usually wear white pointed hats and indigo split short sleeved earth cloth clothes with no collar and buckle. They are tied by a wide five-color belt. Cloth clothes are worn one by one, ranging from seven or eight pieces to more than ten pieces. The number of clothes can be seen from the length inside and the short outside. Yeche people believe that the more pieces of clothes, the more beautiful clothes, the more able to show the wealth of the family. They wear black shorts on their lower bodies, with appropriate pleats on their trouser legs. The number of pleats is roughly the same as that of their tops, and all below their thighs are exposed.
Hani Language belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family, which is close to Yi language, Lisu language, Lahu language and Naxi language. Hani Language is also divided into three dialects: Hani (nya) (nya), Bi (Yoo) Kado (Duo) and Hao (nya) Bai (Hong). The distribution of dialects is similar to that of relevant self claiming units. There are great differences between dialects.
Hani Language is characterized by vowels that are elastic and tight, regardless of length; Vowels are mostly monosyllabic, and compound vowels are mostly borrowed. The Hani people living in Xishuangbanna mostly speak the yanizi dialect of the Haya dialect. Due to long-term exchanges with other ethnic groups, Hani mostly speak Chinese, Dai and other languages.
Before 1949, the Hani did not have their own writing, and wooden knots and ropes were carved in some places to record events. In 1957, the Chinese government helped the Hani people create a Pinyin based on the Latin alphabet, which was piloted in the Hani area in 1958. In 1981, with the help of the Institute of ethnic languages of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna revised, supplemented and adjusted the Hani Language in the trial with the standard pronunciation of the language of the old village of Suhu Yakou, Gelang and Hani Township, and formulated a text scheme of the Hani sub dialect of the Haya dialect for trial in Xishuangbanna.
The Hani migration epic Hani ape congpo (APE: ancestor, congpo: moving from one place to another also means fleeing) is spread among Hani people in Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province, recording the long and tortuous migration process of Hani people.
The traditional literature of Hani nationality is oral literature, which has been preserved and enriched by word of mouth from generation to generation. Myths, legends and "Epics" are the oldest parts of Hani literature. Genesis explains the origin of heaven and earth and the causes of rivers and mountains. He Xin's brother and sister's descendants is a story about the continued reproduction of mankind after severe River disasters. There are also songs on the rules of sacrificing the dragon in spring, called the soul of the valley, the burial song of the elderly, the song of seeking a daughter-in-law, etc., which reflect the religious concept of multi God worship and the customs full of ethnic color of Hani people. It is an important material to understand the ideology and customs of Hani people.
In Ailao Mountain area, Hani people divide the whole year into three seasons, "making it" is the cold season, "wodu" is the warm season, and "hot Wo" is the rainy season, four months each season. The cold season is equivalent to the late autumn and winter of the summer calendar; The warm season is about the spring and early summer of the summer calendar; The rainy season is about the summer and early autumn of the summer calendar, reflecting and adapting to the seasonality and stages of Hani agricultural ecological terrace farming.
In addition to the division of "three seasons", Hani nationality has the division of phenological calendar. The phenological calendar divides a year into 12 months, and determines the months and arranges agricultural activities according to the laws of climate change, vegetation change and animal (mainly birds, insects, etc.) change in Ailao Mountain.
The Hani farming calendar is basically the same as the summer calendar. According to the natural phenomena and phenological changes in Ailao Mountain area, the cycle is divided into 12 months every year, with the moon round and short cycle of 30 days per month and 360 days a year; The day of Hani nationality is named after the 12 Chinese zodiac, and the calculation method is the same as that of the summer calendar. The Hani calendar is gradually developed through the gradual understanding of natural ecology and natural laws. According to research, the Hani nationality once implemented the "thirteen month calendar", that is, a year is divided into 13 months, of which two months are 15 days each. Hani people have also implemented the "October calendar", which is divided into 10 months every year and 36 days a month. The above "December calendar", "13th calendar" and "October calendar" are 360 days a year, which is slightly different from 365.25 days in the current Gregorian calendar (solar calendar). The Hani nationality does not adopt the method of intercalation every other year, but sets three new year's days in May and October, 366 days a year.
Hani people choose to live in the middle of the mountain. Hani people have ear rooms, and buildings with double ear rooms form quadrangles. The ear chamber is flat topped. The roof is paved with coarse wood, then cross paved with fine wood and straw, and tamped with soil (now it is mostly plastered with cement) as a sun terrace. Drying grain, drying clothes, enjoying the cool, children's games and women's textile are often carried out on the drying table. The sun terrace has become an important place for people's production and labor, daily life and leisure activities. It is an important part of terrace agriculture and home life.
Ear chambers are generally used as houses for unmarried children. The social freedom of young men and women prevails in Hani society. All adult young men and women do not interfere with their parents. In some places, when the children are unmarried, small houses (twisted natural) are built next to the houses for their children to live in. The ear room is used as a living room, or as a guest room, or for stacking sundries such as farm tools. Most of the buildings in Mojiang area are soil-based buildings with flat roofs, which are connected between them. The Hani people in Xishuangbanna live in bamboo and wood buildings with balconies.
Hani people are good at singing and dancing. Musical instruments include three strings, four strings, Bawu, flute, Xiangmei, hulusheng, etc. "Bawu" is a unique musical instrument of Hani nationality. It is made of bamboo tube. It is six or seven inches long and has seven holes. The end of the blowing is added with a duck beak shaped flat head. The tone is deep and soft. Dances include "three string dance", "clapping dance", "Fan Dance", "wooden sparrow dance", "music dance", "hulusheng dance", etc. The "dongbocuo dance" popular in Xishuangbanna is a dance form loved by the masses because of its strong posture, lively rhythm, strong atmosphere and strong national characteristics.
The traditional sports of Hani nationality include single rope swing, playing top, climbing pole, shooting crossbow, grabbing bamboo sticks, pole vault, hat defying dance, tug of war, etc.
June (kuzaza): it is a traditional agricultural production festival of Hani nationality. During the festival, cattle (yellow cattle) are killed and sacrificed to the gods of heaven, earth and ancestors. Beef is equally distributed and the collective arranges life. In May and June, the village is prone to diseases and the field is vulnerable to pests. Therefore, clean the water wells and light Songming torches at night to illuminate the house and drive away evil. The torches are inserted into the roadside of the field to send away the God of plague. Various cultural and sports activities are carried out during kuzaza Festival.
Yekuza: it is a traditional festival of Hani people in Xishuangbanna. It starts from the first cattle day (the auspicious day of Hani people) in June of the lunar calendar every year and lasts for 3-5 days. During the festival, people stop working in the mountains, eat, drink and play at home, or go out to visit relatives and friends. During the festival, horse racing, top playing, bamboo tube dancing and other activities are also held.
Huosise: Han people call it "yellow rice Festival" or "February year". Hani people offer sacrifices to cuckoo bird and "pen bitter" bird, the messenger of Cang Momi God. Therefore, after hearing the first call of cuckoo bird and "pen bitter" bird, the festival is held on Hai pig day, and the Festival ends one day.
Zarat: it is the largest festival of Hani nationality. Because it is held in October of the lunar calendar, it is also called "translation of La and Shi", that is, October year, which lasts six days. On New Year's day, each village will kill a pig. Pigs, regardless of size, are equally distributed among households.
October year: Hani people begin their new year with October of the lunar calendar. Celebrating October year is the new year. The festival lasts five or six days, up to half a month. Conditional families want to kill pigs and pound glutinous rice. Relatives and friends visit each other. If there is a matchmaker, please invite the media to make a matchmaking on this festival. The married girl will go back to her mother's house to visit.
Gatangpa Festival: it is the main festival of Hani nationality in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province. "Gatangpa" is Hani Language, which means the recovery of all things or the renewal of everything. The festival lasts from January 2 to 4 every year. During the festival, there are cultural and entertainment programs showing Hani customs, such as long bamboo pole dance, swing, crossbow shooting and other competitions.
New rice Festival: on June 24 of the lunar calendar every year, it is the "new rice Festival" of Kado people in Mojiang Hani Autonomous County. On this day, cardo people want to pound the harvested new grain into new rice to make rice "taste new", which is considered to enhance their physique. At the same time, it also means to celebrate the harvest of "five grains" and "six beans".
Mother's Day: on the first cow day in February of the lunar calendar, it is the "mother's Day" of Kado people, a branch of Hani nationality in Yunnan. It is said that a long time ago, a cardo mother brought up her son. When his son grew up, he beat and scolded his mother, causing her to commit suicide in a river. Later, in order to express his regret, the young man set the day of his mother's death as the "mother's Day" in memory of his mother, which has been followed up to now and has become a traditional festival.
Old people's Day: it is the 15th day of the twelfth lunar month every year. On this day, Hani young men and women wear traditional costumes and celebrate the festival for the elderly in the village with unique dance and rich banquet.
Hani family is a patriarchal family. Men are in charge of producing and selling livestock, while women are in charge of household chores, such as raising livestock, burning fire and cooking. If a woman can have more sons, her status in the family is basically equal to that of her husband. After marriage, the children live in the ovary or build another house. After his father's death, the eldest son moved into the mother's house to exercise parental duties and look after the elderly. After the second son and the young son got married, they separated and started their own family. In the past, you could not recruit a son-in-law without a son. Now you can recruit a son-in-law and intermarry with other nationalities.
In Honghe area, men and women are not allowed to eat at the same table during major festivals (including funerals) (under special circumstances, if the longest man in the family dies, the longest woman in the family will replace him. For major festivals, the elders need to say blessings and eat first). Young children eat with women. When there are many guests, arrange chairs for all men first. If not enough, the second generation women in the family generally stand to eat.
In ancient times, Hani people had no surname and adopted the father son system, that is, the last word of the father's name was the first word of the son's name. If the father's name is Songshan, the son's name is Shanda, and the grandson's name is dapiao, and so on, a family name pedigree will be formed from generation to generation. To recognize the clan and relatives, we need to recite the pedigree, and the daughter can also connect the father's name with the son's name, but it can not be included in the pedigree. If a generation has abnormal death, twins and physical defects, without the father's name, they must escape one generation and be named and listed again.
The Jiwei branch is named after the zodiac on the day the child was born. For example, if born on niuri, it is named niuxx, and if born on Jiri, it is named jixx; Jizuo branch is usually named after "Mo Pi". If the eldest son dies, the following son is named "Pi Xiu"; When the child was born on the road, he was named after Lulian, such as GA (Lu) Nan; During his wife's pregnancy, his husband died abnormally outside, and the baby was born with "Luo".
Each branch of the modern Hani nationality has its own surname, which is called "AGU" in Hani Language, but this surname is not widely used or used in conjunction with the first name. Use only when you need to prove your clan affiliation. There are many kinds of surnames, such as "dangshen AGU", "fish and bird AGU" and "Dangqi AGU". The names of these surnames are generally the names of the ancestors of each clan.
Hani names can be divided into milk name, small name and large size. Different names are used on different occasions. Tuba is only used in reciting genealogy, naming children or grand sacrificial ceremonies. The most common is small name. Today, Hani also take the name of Han nationality. Now it is a custom to use the surname "Yang" for "dangshen AGU" and "Shen Xian AGU" with the surname "Li", etc. However, when taking the name of the Hani nationality, the traditional custom of "father and son with names" is still maintained.
Hani villages generally have dozens of households, up to three or four hundred. In Ailao Mountain on the South Bank of the Red River, Hani people build civil structure houses called "earth palm houses". This kind of house has a solid wall and a thick grass roof. The grass roof not only shields the wind and rain, but also makes the house warm in winter and cool in summer, ventilated and dry. It is generally a three storey building. Due to the high humidity and serious earth atmosphere in Ailao Mountain area, the first floor of houses directly on the ground is not pleasant to live, which is mostly used to keep livestock; The second floor is occupied by people. There is a fire pond in the living room floor, which is square with earth on the floor. Some people also build a stove beside the fire pond for cooking. In this floor, several rooms are separated by the wall for people to live, generally for the owner's couple and children. On the third floor, grain and food are stacked. This floor is the top floor. The mushroom roof makes it have good ventilation effect. Grain and other articles are not easy to be wet and suitable for preservation.
The men and women of yeche people, a branch of Hani nationality, who live on the edge of the Red River, often choose lovers in the way of pairing and banquet. Generally, before pairing and banquet, the man, after obtaining the consent of the woman, raises money and asks the chef to kill the rooster, cook fat meat, fry vegetables, hit wine and soak glutinous rice. The banquet was held around 10 o'clock at night, with about 10-30 participants and bustling onlookers. At that time, the lights will be bright and the table will be filled with all kinds of dishes. First, put the cooked Rooster head up on the table, and hang two chicken testicles and a live crab on the chicken. The "guy head" and "girl head" sit up from the chief, and the other men and women sit in pairs in turn. Then raise a glass, toast and sing to each other. At this time, the boys wrapped glutinous rice and vegetables with banana leaves and gave them to the girls on their way home. If both men and women agree, they can make an appointment for the next meeting. Locals call this courtship "abado", which is held during the slack season.
Young men and women can socialize freely and talk about love before marriage. Marriage requires the consent of parents, and arranged marriage is implemented in many areas. Mojiang Biyue people have the habit of "stepping on the road" engagement, that is, after the men and women agree, the old people of both sides go the same way. If they don't meet rabbits, wolves and other wild animals on the road, they will be engaged. Two or three days after marriage, the new daughter-in-law went back to her mother's house and didn't go back to her husband's house until she had to plant seedlings. The next day after marriage in Honghe area, I went back to my husband's house.
The marriage system of Hani nationality is monogamy, which is relatively strict in Xishuangbanna. It is generally believed that polygamy is not in line with the customs of Hani people. Abandoning his wife and remarrying should be condemned by public opinion. He also has to give gifts to his ex-wife and his uncle's family. It is not allowed to marry a concubine because he has been infertile for many years after marriage.
Hani people are always hospitable. Whenever guests come, they should treat each other with wine. After the guest is seated, the host should first offer a bowl of rice wine and three large pieces of meat, known as "drinking stewed pot wine". When entertaining guests, Lu pays attention to a large amount of food, which is sincere and affordable. During the banquet, people often drink and sing. When the guests leave, some even give a big cake and a bag of pickled meat, crispy meat, tofu balls and other food LV wrapped in banana leaves. The Aini people in Xishuangbanna have the habit of dividing tables for men and women. According to the traditional custom, there are men's rooms and women's rooms at home. Only men can eat at the same table with guests, and women generally do not accompany guests. The seats at dinner are headed by the side close to the fire pond, and the chief is usually sat by the elderly. When dining in the men's room, the chief is seated by the male elderly, and when dining in the women's room, the chief is seated by the female elderly.
Hani people have two daily eclipses, mainly rice and supplemented by corn. They like to eat dry rice, Baba, rice noodles, roll powder and pea jelly. They chop lean meat and cook porridge with rice, ginger, star anise and grass fruit. They like glutinous rice Baba and eat it with pickled meat wrapped in banana leaves.
Hani people love to eat meat. Pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens and ducks eat in large quantities. Drinking in large bowls is the host's hospitality. Guests follow the way of ideas. We gather together and break up happily. In the village, some people kill pigs and chickens or make delicious food. The elderly men and women of all households are invited to eat together, and offer the most tender and delicious parts such as liver to the elderly.
Hani people make their fresh surplus pork and beef into special flavor fire smoked bacon and dry bar, which are stored for guests all year round.
Hani people like drinking, especially during the wine festival. Such as mother's day, old people's day, yellow rice Festival, naming Festival, Dragon Festival, uncle recognition Festival, etc. Every festival has good wine. The most interesting is the love banquet of "abado" wine and song.
Long street Banquet: it is called "Ziwu capital" in Hani Language, and has been translated as "offering sacrifices to dragons and comparing dishes", "Long Street banquet" or "whole village unity banquet". The "Long Street banquet" was held during the Hani new year in October of the lunar calendar. It lasted three days. Farmers in the whole village were divided into three groups to host in turn - each family had a table of exquisite wine and vegetables, and carried out to the street with tables and chairs. There was a street feast more than 100 meters long. The whole village recommended a respected old man to preside over the Dragon sacrifice ceremony.
Marinated banana heart: it is called arooche in Hani Language. When cooking, cut the young stem of wild banana into thin pieces, add an appropriate amount of salt and porridge, mix evenly, and marinate it in a tile jar for 1 ~ 2 days.
Bee pupa sauce: Hani branch flavor snack, which is made of bee pupa chopped and seasoned.
Boiled snake balls: Hani flavor dishes, squeezed into balls with snake meat mud, fried first and then boiled.
Olive fish in clear soup: a traditional dish of Hani nationality, cooked with olive bark and small white fish.
Other special Hani foods include fried muntjac with sour bamboo shoots, provincial meat floss sauce, crab stewed egg white, bamboo tube chicken, fried bamboo insects, etc.
Tian Silang: formerly known as Tian Yizheng, also known as Tian Zheng, "four waves" is its nickname. During the Xiantong period of the Qing Dynasty, he was the leader of the Hani uprising army and a farmer of talangting (Mojiang).
Yi is the sixth largest ethnic minority in China. Its national language is Yi. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. There are 6 dialects in the north, East, South, Southeast, West and cent. Yi Zu
Dong nationality (Dong Language: gaeml) is a minority nationality in China. The national language is Dong language. It belongs to the Dong Shui language branch of the Zhuang Dong language family of the Sino Tibetan language family and believes in many god. Dong Zu
Bai nationality is the 15th largest ethnic minority in China, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other provinces. Among them, the Bai nationality in Yunnan Province has the largest population, mainly living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture,. Bai Zu
Dai nationality (Roman letter: Dai), also known as Thai nationality (Thai: Pang Pang, Roman letter: Thai), Shan nationality (Roman letter: Shan), etc. the national language is Dai (Thai), belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of Zhuang Dong nationality of Si. Dai Zu
Gaoshan Nationality mainly lives in Taiwan Province of China, and a few scattered in coastal areas such as Fujian and Zhejiang Province. Gaoshan ethnic groups mainly live in the mountainous areas in Central Taiwan, the longitudinal valley plain in the Eas. Gao Shan Zu
The Lahu nationality is one of the oldest nationalities in China. Its national language is Lahu. It belongs to the Yi branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. It worships many gods and worships "Esha".. La Hu Zu
Naxi nationality is one of 56 ethnic groups in China and one of the unique ethnic groups in Yunnan. Most of them live in Lijiang City in Northwest Yunnan, the rest are distributed in other counties and cities in Yunnan and Yanyuan, Yanbian, Muli and other. Na Xi Zu
Jingpo, one of China's ethnic minorities, has its own language and characters. The language belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. The five branches belong to the Jingpo language branch and the Burmese Language. Jing Po Zu
Kirgiz, a foreign homologous nation, is called Kyrgyz in Chinese translation. The national language is Kirgiz, belonging to the kpchak group of the East Hungarian branch of the Turkic language family of Altai language family.. Ke Er Ke Zi Zu
Baoan nationality is one of the ethnic groups with a small population in China. Its national language is Baoan language. It belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. Due to its long-term communication with the surrounding Han and . Bao An Zu
Luoba nationality is a minority in China, with a total population of about 600000. Among them, there are more than 2300 people in China controlled areas.. Luo Ba Zu
Jino nationality is one of the seven unique nationalities with a small population in Yunnan Province. The national language is Jino language. It belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. . Ji Nuo Zu