Gong Xian (1618-1689) is a famous painter in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, and one of the eight famous painters in Jinling. He is also known as Youxian. His name is half a thousand or half mu. He is also known as yeyi. He is also known as chaizhangren and Zhongshan Yelao. He is from Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. He lived in Jinling (today's Nanjing City). In his early years, he took part in the restoration activities. During the war in the late Ming Dynasty, he was wandering and living in seclusion in the Qing Dynasty. He lived in Qingliangshan, Nanjing, where he bought painting lessons. He was withdrawn and left behind. The works of poetry, good deeds of grass, derived from Mi Fu, and not stick to the ancient law, self-contained. He is the author of the collection of xiangcaotang. He is also known as the "eight schools of Jinling" together with the painters fan Qi, Gao Cen, Zou Zhe, Wu Hong, Ye Xin, Hu Zhen and Xie sun who are active in Jinling area at the same time. He is also known as "the second half of the world" together with the famous poet Lu Qian (No. Banyin) in the early Qing Dynasty.
Life of the characters
1619 is the 47th year of Wanli
Gong Xian is one year old
He was born in Duqiao Town, Kunshan County, Jiangsu Province. The surname is Gong Mingxian. Other names include banqian, yeyi, chaizhang, Banmu, Banmu Juren, Banan, Penghao, banshanyelao, keyin, Donghai hermit, Jingyi, etc. There are Banshan, CHENXIAN, Chaimo, chaiseng, xiangsou, Shangyuan people, dabuyi, Jiangdong Buyi, yeyixian, Zhongshan Yelao, Banshan Yeren, Banshan Yexian, banqianzhang, gongchushi, Qingliang shanxiaren, Caoxiang hall, anjitang, Anning, etc. Gong is a member of the Kunshan family. Grandfather (name wukao) official Ming, official to long history. His father's name is Yuanmei, and he is also an official. He who has few children lives long.
[note]: there are different opinions about Gong Xiansheng's new year. Now from Mr. Wang Shiqing examination, that is 1619. According to Gu Linshi's "Guo Yun Lou Xu Shu Hua Ji", Gong Xian's twenty-four huge volumes were completed at the turn of spring and summer in Bingchen (1676). Gong's title was "nearly 60 years old, I'm afraid I'm a little tired.". Bingchen is the 15th year of Kangxi (1676), which is promoted to 589. It should be the 47th year of Wanli in Ming Dynasty (1619). In addition, there is a poem named "spring day occasionally narrated" in the collection of Gong banqian's self written poetry anthology (Gong Xinjian's transcript) in Shanghai Library, the first sentence of which is "six years ago, it was over 50". From Renzi in the 11th year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi to Yimao in the 14th year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi, the poems are written in the order of writing. The poem "the occasional account of the spring day" was written in 1674 in Jiayin, the 13th year of Kangxi. Gong Xian was 56 years old.
1627 the seventh year of Tianqi
In August, Emperor Xizong died. Di Xin Wang ascended the throne from Jian and was Emperor Zhuang lie of Sizong. It was changed to Chongzhen. Gong Xian is nine years old. In Kunshan.
1629 is the second year of Chongzhen
Zhang Pu, a member of Taicang, united with Zhuwen society to form fushe. Kaiyinshan (now Wujiang, Jiangsu Province) conference is the first grand meeting of the society. Gong Xian is eleven years old. He moved to Shangyuan (now Nanjing) with his grandfather and father. Her father Yuan Mei continued to marry Wang. Both grandfather and father moved to Sichuan, and there was no news from then on. Gong Xian stayed with Wang.
1630 the third year of Chongzhen
That year, Zhang Pu held the Jinling meeting of Kaifu society in Nanjing. This year, Zhang Pu and Wu Weiye started the examination. Gong Xian is 12 years old in Nanjing. Wang's stepmother gave birth to a younger brother named Han, whose name is Wensi and whose name is Kuoyuan.
1631 the fourth year of Chongzhen in Xinwei
In the winter of that year, Dong Qichang was called to go north to resume his post as Minister of rites. In charge of government affairs. He arrived in Beijing the next year. Gong Xian is 13 years old. In Nanjing. He began to learn painting from Dong Qichang, the Minister of rites in Nanjing. Later, he benefited from Yun Xiang, Zou Zhilin, Li Liufang and Li Yongchang. He said that he could draw when he was 13 years old. It was about the year that I met Yang Wen, a famous scholar of fushe.
1632 Renshen Chongzhen five years
Huang Daozhou, a scholar, sparsely said that the minister cherished the name of eliminating malpractice and took revenge. He thought of Zong's anger and denounced Daozhou for the people. Gong Xian is 14 years old. In Nanjing. I met Ma Shiying about two years ago or later.
1636 the ninth year of Chongzhen in Yihai
In April of that year, Huang Taiji was the emperor, and the name of the country was Qing Dynasty. In May, it was changed into the three internal academies (Hongwen, secretary, National History), with a bachelor's degree. Dong Qichang, a calligrapher and painter, died. He was eighty-two years old. Gong Xian is eighteen years old. In Nanjing. It is about the year when he crossed with Gu Mengyou, Fang Wen, Ge Zhenfu, Yang ribu, Shi qianweng, Xue Qianren, Xing, Xing Dian, Wu Weiye, Liang Yizhang, Liang Yinan and other celebrities. He also established a poetry club with fan Fengyi, Huang liming, Xue gang and other important figures of Donglin in Qinhuai. Involved in literary and political activities.
1637 the tenth year of Chongzhen reign of Ding Chou
Gong Xian is nineteen years old. In Nanjing. In March, the book of mountains and rivers was published in the collection of labdokovo art, affiliated to Bukhara National Art Museum.
1638 the 11th year of Chongzhen reign of Wuyin
Ruan Dacheng lived in Nanjing and conspired with Ma Shiying, the deposed governor. Huang Zongxi, a member of Nanjing fushe society, attacked Ruan Dacheng by writing "leaving the capital to guard against chaos". Zodiac Zhou impeached Sichang and was relegated. Gong Xian is twenty years old. In Nanjing. I saw Mi Fu's "Cloud Gate painting" and was greatly impressed.
1640 the 13th year of Chongzhen
Gong Xian is 22 years old. In Nanjing. There is a seven ancient chapter in "to the president of fan Xiqing". He devoted himself to Qixia Temple in the eastern suburb of Nanjing. He was a hermit at the Shengmen gate of juelang road. His Dharma name was "Da Qi".
1642 the 15th year of Chongzhen in Renwu
In autumn and winter, the Qing soldiers divided their routes into fortresses to break Suzhou, Zhengding, Hejian, Shandong, Linqing counties, Yanzhou, Haizhou, Ganyu, Muyang and Fengpei. Ma Shiying lived in Jinling in the fifth year of Chongzhen. He got the support of Zhou yanru and became the right Minister of the military department and the governor Lu Feng. Gong Xian is 24 years old. In Nanjing. Mountain travel in Shandong, ascend taidai, and return to the Yellow River (see the two poems of dengdai and Shiyuan in caoxiangtangji). In August, he made a fan of landscape, which is now stored in the anonymous Office of the United States.
1643 the 16th year of Chongzhen in Guiwei
In August, Emperor Taizong of the Qing Dynasty died, and his son Fu came to the throne. He was six years old. It's for the ancestors. Change yuan to Shunzhi next year. Gong Xian is 25 years old. In Nanjing. There are postscripts on the axis of imitation of Juran mountains and waters.
1644 the 17th year of Chongzhen
In the first month of this year, Li Zicheng conquered Xi'an, named Dashun and Yongchang. March captured Beijing. Chongzhen, Emperor Yizong of Ming Dynasty, hanged himself in the coal mountain. In April, Zhu Yousong, the Fuwang of the Southern Ming Dynasty, was crowned emperor in Nanjing by Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng. In May, Ming general Wu Sangui refused Li Zicheng's surrender and led the Qing army into the pass. Li Zicheng was defeated. The emperor of Qing Dynasty came to Beijing. The name of the state is "Qing Dynasty", which records Shunzhi. Gong Xian, 26, is in Yangzhou. He went to Yangzhou alone to make a living. There is a poem with five rhythms in the poem "leaving Guangling to nanzhong scholars".
1645 the second year of Shunzhi in Yiyou
In April, the Qing army destroyed Yangzhou and slaughtered the city for ten days, killing more than 800000 people. The history of the Ministry of war of the Southern Ming Dynasty can be traced back to the battle.
In May, the Qing army captured Nanjing. Emperor Hongguang fled to Wuhu, was captured and killed the next year. In June, Huang Daozhou, Zheng Zhilong, etc. honored Zhu Yujian, the king of the Tang Dynasty, to the throne in Fuzhou, and changed to Longwu, the emperor of shaozongxiang. In July, the Qing army destroyed the southern regions of the Yangtze River, such as Jiading and Kunshan. Gong Xian is 27 years old. In Yangzhou. Eight days after March, when Gong Xian returned to Nanjing, he saw paintings by Chen Hongshou, Gao Cen and Shi Shuang, and then went to Yangzhou. Gong Xian lived in the northern suburb of Yangzhou and survived. Fu "Yangzhou song" two, after breaking the city to record the tragic situation.
1646 the third year of Shunzhi
That year, Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng were killed. Yang Wen recruited soldiers in Longquan and restored them according to the plan of Zhu Yu, Emperor Longwu. Defeated, captured and killed. Gong Xian is 28 years old. In Yangzhou. He wrote a poem "to Lin gudu".
1647 the fourth year of Shunzhi of Dinghai
In that year, the law of the Qing Dynasty was completed. The governor of Baoxing prison in Tuguo killed many famous people in Jiangnan. Gong Xian is 29 years old. In Yangzhou. He wrote a poem of five rhythms.
[note]: the remaining person, i.e. Hanke, was arrested in Nanjing in and detained in Chengen temple.
1648 Wuzi Shunzhi five years
Gong Xian is thirty years old. In Yangzhou. In spring, Wang xuandu went to Yangzhou. He wrote a poem to Wang xuandu. In autumn, he was hired by his old friend Xu Yizhi and went from Yangzhou to Liuzhuang of Xu family in Hai'an town, Taizhou to set up an account to teach his son Xu Ning. On the way, he wrote a poem of seven rhythms. In winter, he went to Yangzhou to gather with Gu Yuzhi, Fang Wen, Ji Yingzhong, etc., lived in Gong Dingzi's house, and returned to baimen for a short time. Two pages of a collection of paintings and calligraphy, now in the anonymous Office of the United States.
1649 the sixth year of Shunzhi
Gong Xian is 31 years old. In Haian town. In the year of the flood in Hai'an, the seawall burst and Liuzhuang was flooded. Gong Xian wrote poems and paintings.
1650 the seventh year of Shunzhi of Gengyin
Gong Xian is 32 years old. In Haian town. That year, he went to Dongtao to travel with celebrities such as Wu Jiaji, Wang Hongbao and Ji Kang. He wrote a poem "An Feng Wu Gao Shi" as a gift to Jia Ji.
The eighth year of Shunzhi in 1651
Gong Xian is 33 years old. In Haian town. He wrote two poems: Wang xuandu's fifty poems as a gift and Ling Shi's poems as a gift to peiyuanzhou.
1652 the ninth year of Shunzhi in Renchen
Gong Xian, 34, is in Nanjing. In the winter of this year, Xu Yi and his son left Liuzhuang and returned to Jiangning (now Nanjing) for temporary residence. He wrote many poems, such as Xu Yi's five-year study in the sea, Xu Ning's farewell disciple, Lu Chao's bosom friend, farewell to Hai'an town, coming back to baimen River, Yanziji's nostalgia for the past, and Jing's hometown.
1653 ten years of Shunzhi in Guisi
In the same year, Wu Weiye was called to Beijing to tell the story of Huqiu in Suzhou. He invited famous scholars from various literary societies in the southern regions of the Yangtze River to hold a meeting. Five hundred people (nearly a thousand people) attended the meeting. Gong Xian is 35 years old. In Yangzhou. In spring, he returned to Liuzhuang in Hai'an and settled in Yangzhou. He wrote the landscape axis of "lie Zan Feng Qian Hu" and inscribed poems on the axis as Gong Xian's earliest calligraphy works. Beijing Palace Museum. He wrote five laws and one poem in zaidao.
Twelve years of Shunzhi in 1655
Gong Xian is 37 years old. In Yangzhou. It's Tongjiang, Zhejiang Province. He wrote a poem "crossing the river and fishing for seclusion". In October, he made two pages of a Book of calligraphy and painting, which is hidden in New Hampshire, USA. "Poetry and painting (landscape) volume", Japan Yamaguchi Liangfu collection.
1656 the 13th year of Shunzhi
Chen Zhenhui, a famous scholar in the restoration society, died. Gong Xian is 38 years old. In Tongjiang. He wrote a long postscript in running script. Collected by Beijing Palace Museum.
one thousand six hundred and fifty-seven
Chinese PinYin : Gong Xian
Hanche. Han Che
Song Yu. Song Yu
old fisherman. Yu Fu
Pan Fen. Pan Fen
Wang Zhixing. Wang Zhi Xing
Wang Ji. Wang Ji